By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule

Key Words and Key Terms

  • Different concepts of time
  • Islamic concepts of time
  • European concepts of time
  • Time in Qur’an and sunnat
  • Time perspective of events
  • Importance of time
  • Quality of time
  • Measurement of time
  • Time: planning & prioritizing
  • Methods of prioritization
  • Scheduling time: calendar/diary
  • Transition time
  • Discretionary time
  • Scheduling the day
  • Balance in time management
  • Self versus work
  • Self versus family
  • Self versus community
  • Imbalance among acts of ‘ibadat
  • Problems in time management
  • Poor time planning
  • Habits and routines
  • Procrastination
  • Punctuality
  • Interruptions
  • Meetings


Unit Outline



A. Different Concepts of Time

B. Time in Qur’an and Sunnat

C. Time Perspective of Events

D. Importance and Quality of Time

E. Measurement of Time



A.  Introduction

B. Methods of Prioritization

C. Scheduling Time using a Calendar/Diary

D. Transition, Discretionary, and Linkages

E. Scheduling the Day



A. Self Versus Work

B. Self Versus Family

C. Self Versus Community

D. Imbalance Among Acts of ‘Ibadat



A. Poor Time Planning

B. Habits and Routines

C. Punctuality

D. Interruptions

E. Others



A. Good Reasons for Calling Meetings

B. When not to Call Meetings

C. Success of Meetings

D. Decisions at Meetings.




The underlying concepts influence the efficiency of time use. In pre-Islamic Arabia time was looked at as a dangerous destructive phenomenon, dahr. Islam considers time important, finite, and fleeting. Time is a resource and an opportunity at the disposal of humans. Some time periods and days are of higher quality than others. Human perception of time has innate limitations; humans cannot perceive very quick or very slow events. The modern European concept of time is that of a valuable commodity used for material gain whether at work or at play. Time can be bought or sold like any other commodity.



Good time management assures success. Events can be classified into 4 categories depending on their importance and urgency. Urgent and important, urgent and not important, not urgent but important, and not urgent and not important. Some activities like salat are time-sensitive and must be put on the schedule at the right time. Important things even if not the most urgent should be given most priority. Priority is given to essential needs rather than wants. ‘Ibadat has the first priority. Next are biological needs such as sleep and food. Time must be allocated for the family, rest, recreation, and earning livelihood. Prioritization decisions should be maximizing gains and minimizing losses. Stakeholders must be given priority in time allocation decisions. All time prioritization decisions must be by conscious choice and not passive following of others. A diary or calendar should be used to schedule the day’s activities. Proper scheduling requires attention to transitional time, discretionary time, and functional linkages.



The following balances must be observed in time management: self and family, self and community. Imbalance among various acts of ‘ibadat should be avoided.



Manifestations of poor time planning are: poor scheduling, poor prioritizing, lack of contingency plans, trying to do everything and not delegating, poorly kept diary that is incomplete and with conflicts, overwhelming work, changing priorities, and too many meetings. Managers get overwhelmed with too much work to be done in a short time. Meetings waste time and achieve little if they have no objective, no agenda, no time limits, and late coming. Many mistakes in time planning arise out of failure to anticipate events such that emergencies get out of control and deadlines are missed. Other problems in time management are: procrastinations, inflexible routines and habits, reactive and not pro-active behavior, punctuality, and interruptions (visitors, lengthy conversations, and the telephone.



Good reasons for calling meetings are: goal clarification, information, decision-making, introducing new ideas, conflict resolution, and resolving implementation bottle-necks. Meetings should not be called in the following circumstances: availability of alternatives to a meeting, not enough time to prepare, key players not available, and for personal/sensitive matters. Success of meetings depends on: calling meetings when they are actually necessary, having a clear agenda, maintaining meeting focus on the set agenda, and listening to others. Meetings are the commonest time-waster in organizations. It is more important to do something about problems than to talk about them. Meetings that waste your time have the following characteristics: no objective, no agenda, no time limits, and participants come late. You have several alternatives of dealing with such meetings. If you have a good excuse, do not attend. Finish your priority work and be late. Arrive on time and leave early. Bring work to do during boring meeting sessions. Excuse yourself for 15-20 minutes to do priority work. Meetings that wreck meetings: Invite as many people as possible. Invite anyone. Cover as many topics as possible. Discuss important issues last. Spend most of the time on unimportant issues. Decisions taken at group or team meetings must be binding. If they are not there is no purpose in holding the meeting. If the meeting is meeting in a role other than decision-making, it is fair to inform the participants of that.






  1. Describe socio-cultural variations in concepts of time
  2. Describe the jahiliyyat concept of time

3.      Describe the Islamic concept of time

  1. Describe the European concept of time

5.      Summarize concepts of time in the Qur’an and sunnat

6.      Explain the time perspective of events

7.      Define quality of time and its importance

8.      How is passage of time measured

  1. Give the history of the Islamic calendar



  1. Explain the relation between good time management and success
  2. Describe time-sensitivity of events

12.  Suggest a method of analyzing time use

13.  Discuss advantages and disadvantages of various methods of prioritization

  1. Describe the use of a calendar for scheduling time

15.  Define transitional and discretionary times in relation to time management

  1. Why is consideration of functional linkages important in time management
  2. Give guidelines for scheduling one day’s activities



18.  Describe guidelines for balancing time allocation for self and work

19.  Describe guidelines for balancing time allocation for self and family

20.  Describe guidelines for balancing time allocation for self and community

21.  Describe guidelines for balancing time allocation among various acts of ‘ibadat



22.  Describe manifestations of poor time planning

23.  Explain how overwhelming work leads to poor time management

24.  How can meetings be time wasters

25.  Explain how failure to anticipate events leads to poor time management

26.  Define procrastination and its effects on time management

  1. Explain advantages and disadvantages of habits and routines in tome management
  2. Contrast advantages of reactive against pro-active behavior in time management

29.  Describe problems of punctuality in your community

30.  What are the common causes of late coming

31.  What are the consequences of late coming

32.  Explain the difference between on-time and in-time in time management

33.  How can you solve the problems of unwelcome and unnecessary interruptions

34.  What is the importance of saying 'no'

35.  What are the consequences of refusal

36.  Explain how to deal with time robbers and drop-in visitors

37.  Explain how lengthy conversations waste time

38.  Explain how the telephone can waste time

39.  Explain how office paper work can waste time

40.  How can personal problems lead to problems in time management at work



41.  List and describe good reasons for calling meetings

42.  Give situations in which not to call meetings

43.  Give reasons for success of meetings

44.  Give characteristics of meetings that waste time

  1. Think of a particular community that you know well or have lived in and describe the general concepts about time that are held
  2. What differences in concepts about time do you identify between your community and other communities you have known about
  3. Explain how concepts about time are influenced by the underlying cultural values and norms


  1. Explain in your own words what you understand  by the statement that time is a resource
  2. Think of your community or any other society that you know and describe the attitude to time and its importance. What are the practical consequences of such attitudes?
  3. Explain how the attitude to importance of time determines differences in achievement among individuals, communities and even nations?


  1. Explain in your own words why the month of Ramadhan is better than other months of the year?
  2. Why is Friday better than other days of the week from a community or societal point of view

9.      Explain how understanding of the differences between the different values of times can influence decisions about what tasks to undertake at particular times


  1. Give an example of human failure to perceive correctly very rapid events
  2. Give an example of human failure to perceive correctly very slow events
  3. Explain what type of calendar (Islamic or Gregorian) is used in your community.
  4. What is your suggested solution to the problem of disagreement between those who use sight and those who use computation to determine the start of  Ramadhan
  5. How good are you in estimating time periods without using a watch? Can you suggest an experiment to compare estimation ability among various members of the workshop?



15.  Give examples of the following criteria of prioritization: (a) First come first served (b) Start with easy things (c) Start with the most difficult (d) Start with the most urgent though not most important (e) Start with the most important, though not most urgent

  1. Give examples of conflict between wants and needs
  2. Give examples of conflict between wants and musts


  1. Describe the use of a calendar or of a ‘to-do’ list in your community
  2. How well do people in your community keep appointments: turning up or turning up on time
  3. What are the possible causes of schedule conflict?


  1. Describe the attitude to and practice of late-coming in your community?
  2. What sanctions, if any, does your community impose on late-comers
  3. What are the usual excuses for late-coming
  4. How can you tell a genuine from a non-genuine excuse?



  1. Give examples from your community of imbalance in time allocation
  2. What are the social consequences for the family of time allocation imbalance
  3. What are the health consequences of imbalance in time allocation



  1. Give examples from your experience of time wasting because of the following: (a) Drop-in visitors (b) Telephones (c) Disorganized paperwork
  2. What are the polite ways in your community of getting rid of an unwelcome visitor
  3. How can you politely cut off a rambling useless conversation



31.  Give examples from your experience when schedule conflicts occurred. What was the cause and what was the cause and what were the consequences?

32.  Explain in your own words what contingency planning means. Give an examples

33.  Explain how changing priorities in the middle of an activity causes scheduling problems


  1. What in your experience are the commonest causes of procrastination?
  2. How can a person be actually busy while not being productive
  3. Why do people feel comfortable with routine even if it is unproductive and inefficient
  4. Why in your opinion many people tend to be reactive and not pro-active



  1. What is the most common reason for calling meetings in your organization
  2. Describe meetings in your experience that were successful and the reasons for the success
Describe meetings in your experience that failed and the reasons for the failure

Prof Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. August 2005