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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES-03

0508-TEAM BUILDING

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

Learning Objectives

        General principles of group formation and functioning

        Peculiarities of health care teams

 

Key Words and Key Terms


        Principles of group work

        Groups: definition, classification:

        Groups in the Qur’an and sunnat

        Advantages of group work:

        Disadvantages of group-work:

        Group formation and break-up:

        The ideal group

        Members of the health care team:

        Duality of teaching & care

        The teacher's etiquette:

        The student's etiquette:

        Etiquette of care in the team

        General group dynamics

        Inter-personal interaction:

        Positive behaviors and attitudes

        Negative behaviors and attitudes

        Gender issues

        Gender-specific dressing

        Free gender mixing

        Seclusion

        Lowering the gaze


 

 

Unit Outline

PRINCIPLES OF GROUP WORK

A. Groups: Definition, Classification:

B. Advantages of Group Work:

C. Disadvantages of Group-Work:

D. Group Formation and Break-Up:

E. Characteristics of the Ideal Group:

 

ETIQUETTE of TEACHING & LEARNING in THE HEALTH CARE TEAM

A. Composition of the Health Care Team:

B. Dual Functions of Teaching and Delivering Care

C. The Teacher's Etiquette:

D. The Student's Etiquette:

 

ETIQUETTE of CARE DELIVERY in THE HEALTH CARE TEAM

A. Responsibility

B. Leadership

C. Skills

D. Undertaking Difficult Tasks and Missions

E. Community Work

 

THE HEALTH CARE TEAM: GENERAL GROUP DYNAMICS

A. Basic Duties and Rights of Brotherhood:

B. Additional Duties and Rights of Brotherhood

C. Etiquette of Inter-Personal Interaction:

D. Positive Behaviors and Attitudes

E. Negative Behaviors and Attitudes

 

THE HEALTH CARE TEAM: SPECIAL GROUP DYNAMICS

A. Two Genders

B. Gender-Specific Dressing

C. Free Gender Mixing

D. Seclusion

E. Lowering the Gaze

 

UNIT SYNOPSIS

PRINCIPLES OF GROUP WORK

A group is several interdependent and interacting persons. Work is enjoined in groups that are united, cooperative, open and trusting. Group members must be similar, empathetic, supportive, and sharing. Separation from group is condemned. Group norms must be respected. Breaking norms, secretive behavior, concealment of information, and secret talks destroy groups. Group membership has benefits of integration, stimulation, motivation, innovation, emotional support, and endurance. Group performance is superior to individual performance. Group membership has the disadvantages of arrogance, suppression of individual initiative, member mismatch, and intra-group conflict. Group formation has 4 stages: forming (acquaintance and learning to accept one another), storming (emotions and tensions), initial integration (start of normal functioning), total integration (full functioning), and dissolution. Mature groups have group identity, optimized feedback, decision-making procedures, cohesion, flexibility of organization, resource utilization, communication, clear accepted goals, interdependence, participation, and acceptance of minority views. Groups fail when constituted on the wrong basis, when members cannot communicate, when there is no commonality (interests, attitudes, and goals), and when they have diseases of hasad, nifaq, namiimah, gaybah, kadhb, riyah, kibriyah, hubb al riyasa, tajassus, and dhun al soo. An effective group follows the Qur'an and sunnat, members feel secure and not suppressed, members understand and practice sincere group dynamics, members are competent and are committed to the group and the leadership.

 

ETIQUETTE of TEACHING & LEARNING in THE HEALTH CARE TEAM

The hospital health care team is complex and multi-disciplinary with complementary and inter-dependent roles. Members have dual functions of teaching and delivering health care. Most teaching is passive learning of attitudes, skills, and facts by observation. Teachers must be humble. They must make the learning process easy and interesting. Their actions, attitudes, and words can be emulated. They should have appropriate emotional expression, encourage student questions, repeat to ensure understanding, and not hide knowledge. The student should respect the teacher for the knowledge they have. They should listen quietly and respectfully, teach one another, ask questions to clarify, and take notes for understanding and retention. They should stay around in the hospital and with their teachers all the time to maximize learning.

 

ETIQUETTE of CARE DELIVERY in THE HEALTH CARE TEAM

Each member of the team carries personal responsibility with leaders carrying more responsibility. Leaders must be obeyed except in illegal acts, corruption, or oppression. Rufaidah was good model of etiquette. She a kind, empathetic, a capable leader and organizer, clinically competent, and a trainer of others. Besides clinical activities, she was public health nurse and a social worker assisting all in need. The human touch is unfortunately being forgotten in modern medicine as the balance is increasingly tilted in favor of technology.

 

THE HEALTH CARE TEAM: GENERAL GROUP DYNAMICS

Basic duties of brotherhood and best of manners must be observed. Encouraged are positive behaviors (mutual love, empathy, caring for one another; leniency, generosity, patience, modesty, a cheerful disposition, calling others by their favorite names, recognizing the rights of the older members, and self control in anger. Discouraged are negative attributes (harshness in speech, rumor mongering, excessive praise, mutual jealousy, turning away from other for more than 3 days, and spying on the privacy of others).

 

THE HEALTH CARE TEAM: SPECIAL GROUP DYNAMICS

Gender-specific identity should be maintained in dress, walking, and speaking. Free mixing of the genders is forbidden but professional contact within the limits of necessity is allowed. Patients of the opposite are examined in the presence of a chaperone. The gaze should be lowered. Modest and covering must be observed. Display of adornments that enhance natural beauty must be minimized.

 

 

DISCUSSION ISSUES ON TEAM-BUILDUING

PRINCIPLES OF GROUP WORK

1.      Define and describe various types of groups, formal and informal

2.      Summarize guidelines on groups in the Qur’an and sunnat

3.      List and describe advantages of group work

4.      List and describe disadvantages of group work

5.      Describe the processes and stages of group formation and group break up

6.      How is the set-up of the health care team different from other groups

7.      Describe characteristics of mature groups

8.      List and describe common causes of group break up

9.      What behavioral diseases destroy groups

10.  List and describe characteristics of an ideal group

 

ETIQUETTE of TEACHING & LEARNING in THE HEALTH CARE TEAM

11.  Describe the composition of the health care team

12.  Describe the dual functions of teaching and delivering care

13.  Summarize the teacher’s etiquette

14.  Summarize the student’s etiquette

 

ETIQUETTE of CARE DELIVERY in THE HEALTH CARE TEAM

15.  Describe responsibility in a health care team

16.  Describe leadership in a health care team

17.  Describe the necessary skill matrix in a health care team

 

THE HEALTH CARE TEAM: GENERAL GROUP DYNAMICS

  1. List and describe basic duties of brotherhood that must be fulfilled in a team
  2. Describe additional duties of brotherhood to be fulfilled in a team

20.  Describe Islamic guidelines on the etiquette of inter-personal interaction

21.  List and describe positive behaviors and attitudes

22.  List and describe negative behaviors and attitudes

 

THE HEALTH CARE TEAM: SPECIAL GROUP DYNAMICS

23.  Describe Islamic guidelines on dress for both genders in a team

24.  Describe legal guidelines on gender mixing in a health care team

25.  Describe legal guidelines on seclusion in a health care team

26.  Describe legal guidelines on lowering the gaze in a health care team

 

CRITERIA FOR TEAM MATURITY AND EFFECTIVENESS

 

I. MATURITY OF THE GROUP:

  1. Giving and accepting feedback 
  1. Democratic decision making                 
  1. Group cohesion                                   
  1. Flexibility of members
  1. Use of all member resources                
  1. Members feel free to disagree
  1. Everyone is free to express an opinion
  1. Humor is the norm
  1. Communication is effective                   
  1. Group sets clear strategies and goals    
  1. Interdependence Among members       
  1. Shared participation and not dictatorship          
  1. Listening to and considering minority views       

 

II. GROUP EFFECTIVENESS:

  1. Productivity
  1. Positive handling of complaints
  1. Positive conflict resolution
  1. Commitment to goals
  1. Action-orientation
  1. Apathy of some members
  1. Encouraging creativity and innovation
  1. Competence of team managers/leaders
  1. Effectiveness of meetings and discussions
  1. Effective communication
  1. Trust among team members
  1. Making sure decisions are understood by all
  1. Feeling good as a team member           
  1. Principled behavior

 

 

TEAM-BUILDING GAME

 

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this game is to put into practice principles of effective team-work that were discussed before. Each team will have the task of making a strategy and an action plan that will enable a blind-folded member of the team to carry a Bruneian flag from point A and plant it in a circle of 1 meter diameter at point B. Both points A and B will be on the grass field in front of the Institute of Medicine

 

EVALUATION

Each team will be given a score on each of 2 assessment areas (a) process evaluation (b) outcome evaluation. Process assessment will be based on a percentage score on items on a score sheet. These items are indicators of group maturity and group effectiveness. The outcome score will be based on reaching point B and the time taken.

 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLAYERS

  1. You will be divided into several teams each consisting of 4-6 persons. Team allocations will be entirely random and you will have no say on the allocation process
  2. You will be given 30 minutes to meet as a team and plan your strategy very carefully. You may even practice. You however are not allowed to talk to members of the opposing teams or even to eavesdrop on their discussions.
  3. You will have a total of 10-15 minutes for the blind-folded person to walk from point A to point B and plant a flag in the circle...
  4. You must wear sports clothing with suitable shoes because the playing field will be rough and possibly wet and muddy.
  5. You will select one member of the team and blind-fold him properly. A member of the judge panel will check that the blind-folding is proper before starting. If the blind-fold falls off, the person must go back to the start and have the blind fold reapplied but no extra time will be given.
  6. You can talk to the blind-folded person but cannot push or pull him. He must make movements based on his/her own decision
  7. You can include in your strategy any words or actions that confuse the blind-folded person from the opposing team. You however can not push or pull. You are also not allowed to put dangerous obstacles on the way

 

 


JUDGE’S SCORE SHEET

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE JUDGES

  1. One or 2 members of the panel will stay with a team continuously from the beginning to the end. You will attend their initial 30-minute strategy and planning session. They you will follow them as they work with their blind-folded person to walk from point A to point B.

 

  1. Write notes continuously against each of the criteria that will be used to judge the process. Fill up the score sheet at the end of the process.

 

  1. Make note of additional criteria that you think should have been included on the score sheet. Write them in the additional slots at the bottom of the score sheet. You may if you wish use some or all of them in your evaluation.

 

  1. It is possible that some criteria may not be relevant. Do not score them or include them in the total score.

 

SCORING GROUP MATURITY

Type of Activity or Behavior

High

(2)

Medium

(1)

Low (0)

  1. Giving and accepting feedback 

 

 

 

  1. Democratic decision making                 

 

 

 

  1. Group cohesion                                   

 

 

 

  1. Flexibility of members

 

 

 

  1. Use of all member resources                

 

 

 

  1. Members feel free to disagree

 

 

 

  1. Everyone is free to express an opinion

 

 

 

  1. Humor is the norm

 

 

 

  1. Communication is effective                   

 

 

 

  1. Group sets clear strategies and goals    

 

 

 

  1. Interdependence Among members       

 

 

 

  1. Shared participation and not dictatorship          

 

 

 

  1. Listening to and considering minority views       

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

                                                    TOTAL

 

 

 

 

TOTAL SCORE AS A % OF THE MAXIMUM POSSIBE SCORE


SCORING GROUP EFFECTIVENESS:

Type of Activity or Behavior

High

(2)

Medium

(1)

Low (0)

  1. Productivity

 

 

 

  1. Positive handling of complaints

 

 

 

  1. Positive conflict resolution

 

 

 

  1. Commitment to goals

 

 

 

  1. Action-orientation

 

 

 

  1. dealing with apathy of some members

 

 

 

  1. Encouraging creativity and innovation

 

 

 

  1. Competence of team managers/leaders

 

 

 

  1. Effectiveness of meetings and discussions

 

 

 

  1. Effective communication

 

 

 

  1. Trust among team members

 

 

 

  1. Making sure decisions are understood by all

 

 

 

  1. Feeling good as a team member           

 

 

 

  1. Principled behavior

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

                                                    TOTAL

 

 

 

                        TOTAL SCORE AS A % OF THE MAXIMUM POSSIBLE SCORE

 

SCORING OUTCOME

Outcome assessment will be assessed as follows: 

Time taken to reach the target

Score

5 minutes

100%

6 minutes

90%

7 minutes

80%

8 minutes

70%

9 minutes

60%

10 minutes

50%

11 minutes

40%

12 minutes

30%

13 minutes

20%

14 minutes

10%

15 minutes

9%

 

 


JUDGE’S NOTES & OBSERVATIONS ON GROUP MATURITY

1.      Giving and accepting feedback

 

          

2.      Democratic decision making         

 

           

3.      Group cohesion    

 

                       

4.      Flexibility of members

 

 

5.      Use of all member resources

 

                       

6.      Members feel free to disagree

 

 

7.      Everyone is free to express an opinion

 

 

8.      Humor is the norm

 

 

9.      Communication is effective

 

                       

10.  Group sets clear strategies and goals

 

           

11.  Interdependence among members

 

           

12.  Shared participation and not dictatorship

 

 

13.  Listening to and considering minority views

 

           

14.

 

 

15.

 

 

 


JUDGE’S NOTES & OBSERVATIONS ON GROUP EFFECTIVENESS:

1.      Productivity

 

 

 

 

 

2.      Positive handling of complaints

 

     

 

 

 

3.      Positive conflict resolution

 

 

 

 

 

4.      Commitment to goals

 

 

 

 

 

5.      Action-orientation

 

 

 

 

 

6.      dealing with apathy of some members

 

 

 

 

 

7.      Encouraging creativity and innovation

 

 

 

 

 

8.      Competence of team managers/leaders

 

 

 

 

 

9.      Effectiveness of meetings and discussions

 

 

 

 

 

10.  Effective communication

 

 

 

 

 

11.  Trust among team members

 

 

 

 

 

12.  Making sure decisions are understood by all

 

 

 

 

 

13.  Feeling good as a team member     

 

 

 

 

 

14.  Principled behavior

 

 

 

 

 

15.

 

 

 

 

 

Prof Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. August 2005