The following are najasat:
human feces and urine, spilled blood,
menstrual discharge, pus/discharge, vomitus, intoxicants, saliva of dogs and pigs, prostatic and urethral fluid, dead animals or those not slaughtered
according to the Law, dead tissues or organs from living animals, milk and hair of inedible animals. The following are not
najasat: saliva, nasal discharge, throat clearings, sweat, tears, fresh blood,
fresh internal body fluids (cerebro-spinal, peritoneal, pericardial, pleural, and amniotic fluids), the normal vaginal discharge,
male and female human sexual discharges, milk (human or edible animals). A human, dead or alive, believer or non-believer,
is not najasat.
Excrement, hadith (feces, urine, and flatus) nullifies wudhu.
Salat, sujuud, tawaaf, and carrying the mushaf
are prohibited without wudhu. A book
whose material is more than 50% non-Qur’anic can be carried. Children can carry Qur’an without wudhu. Adults
without wudhu can read Qur;an from memory. Deep sleep abrogates wudu. Excreta of
animals are treated as human excreta.
Istinjah is cleaning away excreta required for feces and urine but not
flatus. When flatus is passed there is no cleaning but wudhu is repeated. A solid cleanser (paper or stone) is followed by
water (the universal and best cleanser). The following are forbidden in the toilet: facing the qibla, facing al quds, conversation, giving or returning salaam, dhikr
al llaah, use of golden or silver utensils, using containers of doubtful cleanliness, carrying any object with Allah’s
name. The following are recommended: using the left hand, entering with the left foot, exiting with the right foot, exposing
the minimum of nakedness, avoiding environmental contamination, brief toilet stay, a dua on entering, and tahmiid on exit. Hand washing is required after istinjah and before
wudu and on waking up from sleep.
Urinary contamination of the body and clothes is a sin. Bladder emptying including urethral massage is required.
Wudhu is followed immediately by salat
in cases of urinary incontinence. Urination is forbidden on hard ground, in a vessel, in a bath, in a hole, in stagnant water,
on any edible material, or facing Makka or al Quds. Urination is allowed standing or sitting down whichever causes
least contamination. Urine of adults (male and female) is washed away. Floor contaminated by urine is washed with water. Water
is splashed over urine of breast feeding boys. Urine of breastfeeding girls is washed with water.
Wudhu and ghusl wash away skin secretions on the face, upper arm and hands, the
feet, and the external meatus of the ear. Tears, morning eye discharges, nasal secretions, throat clearings, and saliva
are not najasat. Upper GIT vomitus is not najasat but lower GIT vomitus is najasat. Normal vaginal moisture, inter-menstrual
vaginal discharges, and sexual discharge on a wet dream are not najasat. A woman
with a chronic vaginal discharges or bleeding washes and pads the vagina, makes wudhu,
and prays immediately because delay nullifies the wudhu. Menstrual blood is washed
or scraped off the cloth which is then used for salat. Touching the penis or the
perineal area of the self, of an adult, or a child, or of an animal nullifies wudhu.
Semen, mani, is not najasat. Prostatic discharge, madhi, and urethral discharge, wadi, najasat. Blood of epistaxis and fresh blood are not najasat. Pleural,
peritoneal, pericardial, and synovial fluids are not najasat. Saliva of a dog is
najasat and has to be washed with water 7 times one of them with soil. Saliva of
the cat and the camel saliva are not najasat. Saliva of domestic animals whose
meat is halal is not najasat.
Rubbing the hair with wet hands in wudhu removes air-borne pathogens
and toxins. Hair can only be dyed with colors other than black. Shaving part of the head with no medical indication is makruuh. A woman cannot shave all her scalp hair without the husband’s permission.
The following are sunnat: trimming the moustache, growing the beard, cutting
axillary and pubic hair, trimming finger and toe nails. Wudhu cleans parts of the
body exposed to environmental pollution. Bathing the whole body is obligatory after haidh,
nifaas, and coitus. It is obligatory before hajj and umrah. It is recommended on Fridays. A man can use henna if he does
not resemble women. Tattoing is haram. Circumcision is sunnat for males and is recommended for females. Male circumcision is removal of the prepuce for hygienic purposes.
Female circumcision is symbolic.
PATIENT HYGIENE, nadhafat al mariidhThe following are not najasat: fresh blood inside the body, interstitial
space fluids, effusions, and physiological secretions (esophageal, gastric, and naso-gastric). The fluids from an ileostomy
are not najasat but those of a colostomy are najasat.
A person with a discharging fistula makes wudhu and prays. Fistulas (vesico-vaginal,
vesico-intestinal, urethro-vaginal, urethro-rectal, or urethro-cutaneous) may discharge stool or urine. Persons with discharging
stomas and fistulas make wudhu and offer salat
immediately and cannot wait.