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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES-03

0412-ROLE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A MURABBI (PART I)

Presentation at the Islamic Enhancement Program (IEP 2004) of the Kulliyah of Economics and Management Sciences held at the Swiss Garden Hotel in Kuantan on 3rd December 2004 by Prof Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.

1.0 BASIC CONCEPTS ON TARBIYAT

1.1 OBJECTIVES OF TARBIYAT

SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT: The essence of personal development is purification of the soul. The Prophet said that if the soul is good the rest of the body becomes good, idha salaha al qalb salaha al jasad kullihi[i]. There are 4 types of qalb, al quluub arbaat[ii]. Professionals may be so engrossed in their work that they forget themselves until they find themselves in spiritual crises that in turn have adverse effects on their professional work. That is why we have spiritual development modules for physicians and medical students. That is why we must have a program of spiritual development for physicians and medical students.

 

KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge is needed for spiritual development. Spirituality based on a flawed knowledge base will soon be diverted by shaitan. Knowledge is needed to distinguish correct aqidat from the incorrect one. Knowledge is also needed for proper performance of aadaat and ibaadaat. A Muslim must therefore have a basic corpus of knowledge that he cannot do without. The jurists use the term what is known in religion by necessity, al ma’aluum fi al ddiin bi al dharuurat.

 

1.2 MODELS OF TARBIYAT

THE DAR AL ARQAM MODEL: The best model of tarbiyat is the study circle (also called halaqah or usra). The prophet (PBUH) was able to train the best generation of Muslims in Makka in Dar al Arqam. It was integrated training involving teaching by word and by example. The graduates of the system built the Islamic civilization that we are proud of. The dynamics of the start of the Islamic state were related to the dar al arqam experience. The prophet aimed at training a sufficient number of persons to carry the responsibility and as soon as he had that number he had to migrate to Madina. The hijra was not fleeing from danger but was a strategical move. The prophet used to tell his companions not to be hasty, wala kinnakum tasta’ijuluun, because he knew that no civilization could be build without trained men.

 

HUMAN MESSENGERS AS MODELS: All messengers were human[iii]. They were humans who lived like other humans and undertook human activities like riding donkeys or milking goats[iv]. As a sign of their humility they all reared sheep[v]. Allah could have conveyed His message to humans in several ways. He however chose to send human messengers because they would convey the message in addition to living exemplary lives that would be a model for others[vi]. 

 

1.3 TRAINING, EDUCATION, and DEVELOPMENT

To put training in perspective, you should be able to distinguish it from 2 related concepts: education and development. Training in essentially learning on the job. It aims at equipping the worker with practical skills that are usable immediately on the job. Training in this sense differs from education and development. Education is acquisition of general knowledge. It is academic and may not necessarily be usable in a practical work situation. Development is general improvement in knowledge and skills that occurs passively as an individual belongs to a certain group and stays in it.

 

Training is superior to education and development in that it imparts paracrical skiils neded in life. The prophet taught his companions everything big or small including toilet etiquette[vii]. The story of Adam indicates that human civilization started with training[viii]. Musa went to Khidhr to learn practical lessons in life[ix]. Training can be by example, qudwat[x]. Stories can be used to teach[xi]. The Qur’an uses the question and answer technique in teaching[xii]. Jibril used the question and answer technique to teach the companions the fundamentals of the ddiin[xiii]. Practical aspects like salat are best taught by demonstration[xiv]. Jibril taught the prophet the times of salat by practical demonstration, he came to him at the start and end of each salat[xv]. Jibril taught the prophet wudhu and salat by practical demonstration[xvi]. The prophet taught times of salat by practical demonstration[xvii]. The prophet taught the manner of adhan by practical demonstration[xviii]. Companions taught others about wudhu by practical demonstration[xix]. Companions taught salat by practical demonstration[xx]. The prophet demonstrated the permission to break the fast on a journey by breaking his own fast[xxi]. The prophet demonstrated the importance of working by working with his own hands at Khandaq[xxii]. Training should start from the simple to the more complex[xxiii]. New ideas and concepts should be introduced in a phased way[xxiv]. Examples were used extensively in the Qur’an for teaching. ALLAH gives examples[xxv]. the examples are of all sorts[xxvi]. the the knowledgeable understand examples[xxvii]. examples are a guide[xxviii]. the qur’an gave examples of the following: munafiqin[xxix], giving by unbelievers[xxx], the dog[xxxi], life on earth[xxxii], comparison of good and bad group[xxxiii], allah’s nur[xxxiv], the house of the spider[xxxv], a village[xxxvi], companions of muhammad[xxxvii], good and bad words[xxxviii], good and bad giving[xxxix], good and bad women[xl], resurrection[xli], resurrection and embrological development[xlii], those who eat riba[xliii], and misleading examples[xliv].

 

1.4 THE LECTURER AS A MURABBI

The concept of a murabbi is an integrated one. The murabbi should teach concepts, skills, bnehavior etc. This seems a heavy burden but there is no way around it.

 

2.0 TARBIYAT IN THE CLASSROOM

2.1 THE TEACHER’S ETIQUETTE: Teachers should take their task very seriously. The education process, involving giving and receiving knowledge is noble[xlv]. Teachers should have the humility to know that their knowledge is limited and that they can always learn more. Arrogance because of knowledge is condemned[xlvi]. Teachers must make the learning process interesting and avoid boredom[xlvii]. They should make the atmosphere and circumstances of learning easy for the students[xlviii]. Teachers must be careful in their actions, attitudes, and words at all times because being models and leaders they are seen and are emulated. They must be aware that sometimes they can teach using body language without saying anything[xlix]; they have to be careful about their public dispositions They should be ready to carry out their function at all times and at any opportunity[l]. They should have an appropriate emotional expression. They can raise the voice to emphasize an important point[li]. They can show anger or displeasure when a mistake is committed[lii]. Asking students questions to ascertain their level of knowledge is part of the teaching process and is not in any way a humiliation for them[liii]. Teachers should make sure that the students understand by constant repetition[liv]. Teachers should strive to pass on to the students as much knowledge as they can. Hiding knowledge is a cause of punishment, uqubat man katama ‘ilma[lv].

 

2.2 THE STUDENT'S ETIQUETTE:

The Islamic etiquette of the relation between the student and the teacher should be followed. In general the student should respect the teacher. This is respect to knowledge and not the individual. The prophet taught admiration and emulation of the knowledgeable[lvi]. Students should be quiet and respectfully listen to the teacher all the time[lvii]. Students should cooperage such that one who attends a teaching session will inform the others of what was learned[lviii]. Students can learn a lot from one another. The student who hears a fact from a colleague who attended the lecture may even understand and benefit more[lix]. Students should ask questions to clarify points that they did not understand or which seem to contradict previous knowledge and experience[lx]. Taking notes helps understanding and retention of facts[lxi]. Study of medicine is a full-time occupation; students should endeavour to stay around the hospital and their teachers all the time so that they may learn more and all the time. They should avoid being involved in many other activities outside their studies[lxii].

 

3.0 TARBIYAT OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM

3.1 DUTIES OF BROTHERHOOD

BASIC DUTIES AND RIGHTS OF BROTHERHOOD: The following are basic rights of brotherhood that all members of the health care team owe to one another: returning greetings, following the funeral procession, accepting invitations, visiting the sick, and responding to sneezer. Brotherhood is so important that it is not abolished by homicide[lxiii].

ADDITIONAL DUTIES and RIGHTS OF BROTHERHOOD: The following are additional duties: tolerance, forgiveness, helping the oppressed, solving problems, fulfilling needs, compassion and kindness, gratefulness, protecting the honor of others, fulfilling promises and commitments, respect, sincere advice or nasiiha. It is part of the duties of brotherhood to avoid underrating and humiliating others. It is considered part of good behavior to remove any annoyance from the public places, imatat al adha an al tariiq[lxiv]. In general, everybody must behave with the best of manners, husn al khulq[lxv].

 

3.2 ETIQUETTE OF INTER-PERSONAL INTERACTION:

Greeting is necessary whenever members meet again even after a short separation. A small group will initiate greeting the larger group[lxvi]. The walking person initiates greeting the one sitting down[lxvii]. Everybody must be greeted whether known or not known[lxviii]. Those in an assembly must make room for any new comer[lxix]. Two individuals should not engage in secret conversation in the presence of others[lxx] because that may create an impression of backbiting and suspicion. It is forbidden to prostrate for seniors. Curtsying for seniors is allowed but it becomes haram if done for purposes of seeking favors from them. It is also not permitted if done under coercion.  Standing up when a person enters is a sign of respect[lxxi]. You should not force a sitting person from his seat[lxxii]. When a person goes away for a temporary period, he has the right to reclaim his seat[lxxiii].

 

3.3 POSITIVE BEHAVIORS and ATTITUDES

The following positive behaviors and attributes should be encouraged in the team: mutual love, tawadud, and empathetic caring for one another, rahmat & hilm[lxxiv]; leniency, rifq, in everything[lxxv]; co-operation and mutual support, ta'awun[lxxvi]; generosity, karam[lxxvii]; truthfulness, sidq[lxxviii]; patience, sabr[lxxix]; modesty, haya[lxxx]; cheerful disposition, imbisaat[lxxxi]; calling people by their favourite names, ahabb al asma[lxxxii]; recognising the rights and the position of those older than you, irfan haqq al kabir[lxxxiii]; and self control in anger, malk al nafs inda al ghadhab[lxxxiv].

 

3.4 NEGATIVE BEHAVIORS and ATTITUDES

The following negative attributes should be avoided: harshness in speech[lxxxv], rumour mongering, namiimat[lxxxvi], excessive praise of others in their presence, al ghulw fi al thana[lxxxvii], mutual jealousy and turning away from other, tahasud & taba'ud, & tadabur[lxxxviii], avoiding interaction with a colleague, hijrat, for more than 3 days following a misunderstanding[lxxxix]; anger, ghadhab[xc]; spying on the privacy of others, tatabu'u awrat al nas[xci];  You should avoid repeating the same mistake twice[xcii]. It is required not to volunteer information about your personal weaknesses, al satr ala al nafs[xciii], unless it involves correcting a mistake related to the general medical work

 

4.0 CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT

4.1 WHAT IS CHARACTER?

Character, determined by personality, is internal. Its outward manifestation is behavior, good or bad. Consistent observation of behavior over a long time reveals true character. The following are some of the components of a positive character: Piety, generosity, charity, chastity, trust, humility, balance, moderation, patience, endurance, cooperation, forgiving, ignoring stupid company, reconciliation, honor and dignity, shyness, modesty, integrity, courage, and wisdom. These traits are best manifested in an atmosphere of positive attitudes, optimism, and behavior. Positive behavior includes: controlling appetites (eating little, fasting, sexual self-control), fulfilling needs of others, mercy, good words and acts; and good deeds which wipe out bad ones.

4.2 SELF-IMPROVEMENT

Self-improvement requires commitment, effort and action to achieve goals, taking responsibility, learning from previous experiences (positive and negative), interdependence, pursing real needs and not mere wants, a positive attitude, a futuristic outlook, assertiveness, self-confidence, and self reliance, and contentment. 

4.3 TAKING CHARGE

Being assertive is learning to take control. A person who has self-control can stand up to the temptations of shaitan. The following are ingredients of self control: self-confidence, self-esteem, self-reliance, self-discipline, and self-development. Self-confidence is to know yourself, your strengths and weaknesses, to be comfortable with what you are, and to be psychologically secure. Psychological security raises self-esteem. Self-help and self-improvement are in essence taking charge of your life, relying on yourself in solving problems, and taking the initiative to improve. Self discipline is needed for success and consists of control of whims and emotions, sticking to goals, acting according to long-term and not short-term interests, avoiding impulsive acts, following the head and not the emotions, and trusting your instincts. An entrepreneurial attitude requires initiative, optimism, self-confidence, creativity, taking calculated risks, looking for and exploiting opportunities, perseverance and determination.

4.5 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Social development starts with selection of a spouse and starting a family. It involves learning to develop social networks and taking social responsibilities in the community.

4.6 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

The factors behind professional success are a good basic education, postgraduate training, apprenticeship to a good mentor, setting goals and a time frame to achieve them, adopting a growth strategy, delivering quality results in the work and not seeking cheap publicity. Professional networking involves identification of strategic partners for mutual benefit and not manipulating or exploitation. The networking starts within Muslim circles and extends to the wider professional and social circles. Nurturing contacts is very important otherwise they get lost. Economic empowerment should have the objective of eventual self-employment.  A long-term development plan must be made. Putting side some of the monthly earnings for asset accumulation and investment ensures financial stability and expansion of the Muslim economic base.

 

5. 0 INCULCATION OF CONTEMPLATION

5.1 DEFINITION: Contemplation is meditation about Allah’s creations and signs with deliberation. It is a spiritual and not an intellectual exercise. It requires concentration therefore it is often undertaken at times and places where environmental sensory distractions are minimum. Contemplation of the nature of Allah is forbidden. Contemplation is possible only on signs and creations of Allah.

 

5.2 CONTEMPLATION DURING I’ITIKAAF, SALAT, and DHIKR: Contemplation can be carried out in the mosque or in other places isolated from the daily routines of life (open desert, forest, oceon etc). Spending time in the mosque for purposes of contemplation and ibadat is called I’itikaaf or ‘ukuuf fi al masjid[xciv]. When one is in isolation, khalwat, he has special spiritual experiences. There is a feeling of being liberated from the daily concerns of the duniya. There is also a sweet feeling of being alone with Allah, al kahlwat ma’a al llaah. Contemplation is best undertaken at night due to the serenity and lack of interruption. Salat is also a unique opportunity for contemplation. Dhikr is a form of contemplation. Contemplation can also be carried out during dhikr.

 

5.3 CONTEMPLATION BY OBSERVING THE ENVIRONMENT: There are several methods of achieving the purposes of contemplation. Contemplation can be by looking at nature, al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi al aafaaq[xcv]. Contemplation can be by looking at the self, al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi an anfus[xcvi]. Contemplation cn be on the wonders of Allah’s creation, al tafakkur fi khalq al llaah [xcvii]

 

5.4 CONTEMPLATION BY THINKING: Contemplation can also be by thoughts. One can contemplate Allah’s signs, al tafakkur fi ayaat al llaah[xcviii]. One can contemplate the past, al tafakkur fi al maadhi. One can contemplate the future especially hell and paradise. Daily events of life in the individual and the community can be objects of contemplation.

 

5.5 CONTEMPLATION OF THE QUR’AN: One can contemplate the Qur’an, al tafakur fi al Qur’an[xcix].

 

6.0 MOTIVATION OF IKHLAAS & NIYYAT

Commitment, ikhlaas, was described in the Qur’an in several verses[c]. Ikhlaas is expressed in the intention, Ikhlaas al niyyat[ci]. Work is the consequence of the intention. Every work is rewarded according to the intention behind it, innama al a’amaal bi al niyaat[cii]. Every person is rewarded according to his/her niyyat, li kulli imri ma nawa[ciii]. The amount of reward is commensurate with the intention, iqaau al ajr ;ala qadr al niyyat[civ]. The reward is given for the niyyat even if the work is not performed. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that if a person intends to do a good and but fails to carry out his intention, he gets the reward for one act. If on the other hand he manages to do only part of the work he gets the reward for the whole work. On the day of resurrection people will be resurrected with their intentions, yukhsharu al naas ‘ala niyyatihim[cv]. Any work without niyyat is not recognized[cvi].

 

The niyyat must be constant and consistent throughout the whole period of performance until completion. Start must be early and serious, baadiru bi al ‘amal[cvii]. Work is best judged by its last stages, al ‘amal bi al khawatiim[cviii]. The best of work is that which is consistent and continuous, khayr al ‘amal adwamuha[cix]. In all performance, the human performs that which he is capable of even if the niyyat envisaged more[cx]. Al Fadhail bin ‘Iyaadh said that work for the sake of humans is shirk and also no working for fear of people is riyaa, Ikhlaas is when Allah saves you from shirk and riyaa[cxi]. Work is a test for the human, ibtilaau al insane bi al ‘amal[cxii].

 

Work is responsibility[cxiii]. The Qur’an emphasizes the importance of work, al hath ‘ala al ‘amal[cxiv]. There is reward, good or bad, for work done, jazaau al ‘amal[cxv]. Humans have freedom to choice in the work that they do, hurriyat al insaan fi al ‘amal[cxvi]. Work can be good, ‘amal hasan[cxvii]. Work can also be bad, ‘amal sayyi[cxviii]. Bad work can be decorated to make it appear good, tazyiin al ‘amal al sayyi[cxix]. Bad work is condemned, dhammu al ‘amal al sayyi[cxx]. The reward for bad work is a bad one, jazau al ‘amal al sayyi[cxxi]. Humans must repent from bad work, al taubat min al ‘amal al sayyi[cxxii].

Good work reflects underlying faith, al ‘amal al saalih min al imaan[cxxiii]. Al tafadhul fi al ‘amal al saalih[cxxiv]. Good work is rewarded in the hereafter, thawaab al ‘amal al saalih al ukhrawi[cxxv]. It is also rewarded on earth, thawab al ‘amal al saalih fi al duniya[cxxvi].

Work must be performed with the purest of intentions. Everything including the various organs of the body bear testimony to good work, shahaadat al a’adha ‘ala al ‘amal[cxxvii]. Allah knows all the work done[cxxviii]. Any form of showing off must be avoided. Riyaa is a type of minor shirk[cxxix]. Working for the purposes of showing off, riyaa, is frowned upon[cxxx].  The Qur’an condemns those who want to be praised for work they did not do[cxxxi].

 

7.0 INCULCATING RESEARCH AS IJTIHAD

7.1 BASIS FOR RESEARCH IN ISLAM

SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE, talab al ‘ilm: Islam puts emphasis on seeking knowledge, al wusaat bi talab al ‘ilm[cxxxii]. The search for knowledge is a difficult but necessary process as we learn from the story of Musa and the righteous man[cxxxiii]. Islam calls for benefiting and using knowledge, al intifa’u bi al ‘ilm wa al ‘amal bihi[cxxxiv]. There is no consideration for knowledge not accompanied by practical application, la ‘ilm bighayr ‘amal[cxxxv]. 

CRITICAL CONSIDERATION OF INFORMATION, al tadabbur: Tadabbur involves critical observation and consideration of information. Tadabbur involves critical consideration of information. Humans are encouraged to derive empirical knowledge from observation of the earth and their own bodies. The observation referred to is serious and deliberative, al nadhar bi al tadabbur. Tadabbir is required even with the holy text of the Qur’an, tadabbur al Qur’an[cxxxvi].

C. THINKING BASED ON OBSERVATION, tafakkur bi al nadhar

Thought can be based on empirical observation, al tafakkur bi al nadhar[cxxxvii]. The observation can be of the earth, al tafkkur bi al nadhar fi al aafaaq[cxxxviii]. It can also be by observation of the human body, al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi al anfus[cxxxix].

INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, ijtihad

Islam encourages active intellectual effort in looking for knowledge. The process of ijtihad is exertion of maximum intellectual effort to discover the truth or understand the relation between truths. Ijtihad is also used to discover and identify falsehoods. There are parallels between the tools of ijtihad used by classical Muslim scholars and the processes of reaching conclusions in modern scientific research. The process of inductive logic used in medical research is the same as qiyaas usuuli used by scholars of the methodology of the Law, ulamaa usul al fiqh. The process of reaching a scientific consensus is similar to the process of scholarly consensus, ijma al ‘ulama.

 

7.2 SHIFT FROM ‘CONSUMPTION’ TO ‘PRODUCTION’ OF KNOWLEDGE: The physician of the future will have to change easily between three inter-related roles: research, teaching, and care delivery. The research called for is not a full-time occupation and will normally be carried out as a multi-disciplinary effort. The need for research cability is motivated by the fact that the undergraduate curriculum cannot provide all the knowledge that a physician will need. There is thus a need to acquire new knowedge on a continous basis by reading and research. Medical graduates are not prepared to be researchers. They lack curiosity and initiative. They have underdeveloped ability to observe and interprete phenomena.

The medical curriculum should aim at preparing the student to be a researcher, mujtahid, who will extend the frontiers of medical knowledge. The paradigm shift involved here is to change the student and future physician from a consumer to a producer of knowledge. The physician must be trained to be a life-long learner. Research is the best way to learn and stay on the frontiers of knowledge because it is learning by doing and being the midwife of new knowledge. In practical terms, preparation for research means increasing time devoted to subjects on basic research methodological tools and decreasing the amount of biomedical scientific information that is either forgotten or becomes obsolete by the time of graduation. Student research projects are a good introduction to life-long curiosity in science and discovery.

 

Go to Part II

[i] (KS 449: Bukhari K2 B39, Tayalisi H788

[ii] (KS 449 Ahmad 3:17)

[iii] (p504 3:79, 5:75, 6:11, 11:27, 14:10-11, 15:33, 16:43, 17:93-95, 18:110, 21:3, 21:7-8, 21:34, 23:24, 23:33-34, 23:47, 25:7, 26:154, 26:186, 36:15, 4:6, 42:51, 54:24, 64:6)

[iv] (KS536: Tayalisi 330)

[v] (KS 534: Bukhari K37 B2; Bukhari K60 B29; Bukhari K70 B50; Muslim K36 H164; Ibn Majah K12 B5; Muwatta K54 H81; Ibn Sa’ad J1 Q1 p 79, 80; Ahmad 3:326; Ibn Hisham 106)

[vi] (17:94-95)

[vii] (Muslim 1: 160, Chapter 106, Hadith # 504)

[viii] (Baqara: 30-38)

[ix] (Qur’an 18:60-82)

[x] (Qur'an 33: 21, Qur'an 6:90, Qur'an 60:6, Qur'an 60:4)

[xi] (Yusuf:111, Hud:120, Araf:176)

[xii] (Qur'an 2:189, Qur'an 2:219)

[xiii] (Abu Daud 3:13151316, Ch. 1693, Hadith # 4678, Muslim 1:1-3. Ch. 1)

[xiv] (Abu Daud 1:216, hadith #84?)

[xv] (Abu Daud 1:102-103, hadith #393)

[xvi] (   )

[xvii] (Muwatta 1:3)

[xviii]  (Abu Daud 1:28, hadith #500)

[xix] (Bukhari 1;128, hadith # 186, Muwatta 2:9,  Bukhari 3:76, hadith # 155)

[xx] (Bukhari 1:364, hadith # 645)

[xxi] (Tabari 6:77‑78)

[xxii] (Bukhari 4:272)

[xxiii] (Bukhari 1:60, hadith # 67)

[xxiv] (Muslim 1:14-15. Ch. 71.2.1)

[xxv] (ibrahim:45)

[xxvi] (baqara: 26)

[xxvii]  (ankabut:29, 43)

[xxviii] (hajj:73)

[xxix] (baqara : 14-18)

[xxx] (al imran 116-117)

[xxxi] (araf 175-177)

[xxxii] (yunus:24)

[xxxiii] (hud: 18-24)

[xxxiv]  (nur:35)

[xxxv] (ankabut:41-43)

[xxxvi] (yasin: 13-29)

[xxxvii] (fath: 29)

[xxxviii] (ibrahim: 24-26)

[xxxix] (baqara: 264-265)

[xl] (tahrim: 10-12)

[xli] (baqara: 259)

[xlii] (hajj: 5-7)

[xliii] (baqara: 275)

[xliv] (furqan: 4-10)

[xlv] (MB70 Bukhari 1:79)

[xlvi] (MB102 Bukhari 1:124)

[xlvii] (MB62 Bukhatri 1:68)

[xlviii] (MB63 Bukhari 1:69)

[xlix]  (MB75 Bukhari 1:85 and MB76 Bukhari 1:86)

[l] (MB74 Bukhari 1:83)

[li] (MB55 Bukhari 1:57)

[lii] (MB79 Bukhari Bukhari 1:90, MB80 Bukhari 1:91, and MB81 Bukhari 1:92)

[liii] (MB56 Bukhari 1:59)

[liv] (MB82 Bukhari 1:95)

[lv] (KS390 Abudaud K24 B9, Tirmidhi K39 B3, Ibn Majah Intr B24, Ibn Sa’ad J4 Q2 p56, Ahmad 2:263, Ahmad 2:296, Ahmad 2:305, Ahmad 2:344, Ahmad 2:352, Ahmad 2:495, Ahmad 2:499, Ahmad 2:508, Tayalisi H2534)

[lvi] (MB66 Bukhari 1:73)

[lvii] (MB101 Bukhari 1:122)

[lviii] (MB78 Bukhari 1:89)

[lix] (MB61 Bukhari 1:67)

[lx] (MB88 Bukhari 1:103)

[lxi] (MB93 Bukhari 1:112)

[lxii] (MB98 Bukhari 1:118)

[lxiii] (2:178, hujrat:9-10)

[lxiv] (KS69 Bukhari K10 B32, Bukhari K56 B128, Muslim K1 H58, Muslim K12 H54, Muslim K12 H56, Muslim K45 H128, Muslim K45 H129, Muslim K45 H130, Muslim K45 H131, Muslim K45 H132, Tirmidhi K25 B36, Tirmidhi K25 B38, Tirmidhi K38 B6, Ahmad 2:343)

[lxv] (KS69 Tirmidhi K25 B55, Tirmidhi K25 B62, Tirmidhi K25 B71, Ibn Majah K37 B28, Darimi K20 B74, Zaid H934, Ahmad 2:177, Ahmad 2:185, Ahmad 2:193, Ahmad 2:217, Ahmad 2:250, Ahmad 2:291, Ahmad 2:369, Ahmad 2:392, Ahmad 2:403, Ahmad 2:442, Ahmad 2:466, Ahmad 2:469, Ahmad 2:472, Ahmad 2:481, Ahmad 2:527, Ahmad 3:501, Ahmad 4:182, Ahmad 4:193, Ahmad 4:194, Ahmad 4:385, Ahmad 5:89, Ahmad 5:99, Ahmad 5:228, Ahmad 5:236, Ahmad 6:47, Ahmad 6:64, Ahmad 6:68, Ahmad 6:85, Ahmad 6:90, Ahmad 6:99, Ahmad 6:133, Ahmad 6:155, Ahmad 6:159, Ahmad 6:187, Ahmad 6:442, Ahmad 6:446, Ahmad 6:448, Ahmad 6:451, Tayalisi H374, Tayalisi H1233, Tayalisi H2246)

[lxvi] (MB2057 Bukhari 8:250)

[lxvii] (MB2068 Bukhari 8:252)

[lxviii]  (MB2059 Bukhari 8:253)

[lxix] (MB2063 Bukhari 8:267)

[lxx] (MB2018 Bukhari 8:40)

[lxxi] (KS67 Abudaud K40 B143)

[lxxii] (KS67 Bukhari K79 B31, Bukhari K79 B32, Muslim K39 H27, Muslim K39 H28, Muslim K39 H29, Abudaud K40 B15, Tirmidhi K41 B9, Darimi K19 B27, Ahmad 2:6, Ahmad 2:22, Ahmad 2:45, Ahmad 2:89, Ahmad 2:102, Ahmad 2:121, Ahmad 2:124, Ahmad 2:126, Ahmad 2:149, Ahmad 2:338, Ahmad 2:483, Ahmad 2:523, Ahmad 5:44, Ahmad 5:48, Tayalisi H871, Tayalisi H195)

[lxxiii] (KS67 Muslim K39 H31, Abudaud K40 B25, Tirmidhi K41 B10, Ibn Majah K33 B22, Darimi K19 B28, Ahmad 2:32, Ahmad 2:84, Ahmad 2:263, Ahmad 2:283, Ahmad 2:342, Ahmad 2:389, Ahmad 2:446, Ahmad 2:447, Ahmad 2:483, Ahmad 2:527, Ahmad 2:537, Ahmad 3:32, Ahmad 3:422)

[lxxiv] (MB2018 Bukhari 8:40, KS68 Tirmidhi K25 B16, Ahmad 2:241, 269, 442, 461, 514, 539, Ahmad 3: 40. Ahmad 4:358, 366)

[lxxv] (KS68 Tirmidhi K25 B67, Darimi K20 B75)

[lxxvi] (MB2026 Bukhari 8:55)

[lxxvii] (MB2028 Bukhari 8:60)

[lxxviii] (MB2039 Bukhari 8:116)

[lxxix] (MB2040 Bukhari 8:121)

[lxxx] (MB2043 Bukhari 8:138, MB2044 Bukhari 8:141)

[lxxxi]  (MB2045 Bukhari 8:150)

[lxxxii] (MB2055 Bukhari 8:240, MB2056 Bukhari 8:242)

[lxxxiii] (KS68 Tirmidhi K25 B15, Ahmad 2:185, Ahmad 2:207, Ahmad 2:222)

[lxxxiv] (KS68 Bukhari K78 B53, Muslim K45 H106, Muslim K45 H107, Muslim K45 H108, Abudaud K40 B3, Ibn Majah K37 B18, Muwatta K47 H12, Ahmad 2:236, Ahmad 2:268, Ahmad 2:362, Ahmad 2:517, Ahmad 3:438, Ahmad 2:440, Tayalisi H2525)

[lxxxv] (MB2029 Bukhari 8:64)

[lxxxvi] (MB2032 Bukhari 8:82)

[lxxxvii]  (MB2033 Bukhari 8:87, KS68 Abudaud K40 B9, Ibn Majah K33 B36, Ahmad 2:94, Ahmad 6:5)

[lxxxviii]  (MB2034 Bukhari 8:91 & MB2035 Bukhari 8:90, KS68 Bukhari K78 B57, Bukhari K78 B58, Muslim K45 B23, Muslim K45 B24, Muslim K45 B28, Muslim K45 B32, Muslim K45 B70, Abudaud K40 B44, Abudaud K40 B47, Tirmidhi K25 B23, Tirmidhi K25 B24, Tirmidhi K25 B25, Tirmidhi K35 B56, Ibn Majah K37 B22, Muwatta K37 B22, Ahmad 1:405, Ahmad 2:176, Ahmad 2:222, Ahmad 2:230, Ahmad 2:277, Ahmad 2:287, Ahmad 2:288, Ahmad 2:303, Ahmad 2:312, Ahmad 2:341, Ahmad 2:360, Ahmad 2:389, Ahmad 2:393, Ahmad 2:394, Ahmad 2:446, Ahmad 2:465, Ahmad 2:469, Ahmad 2:470, Ahmad 2:480, Ahmad 2:491, Ahmad 2:501, Ahmad 2:512, Ahmad 2:517, Ahmad 2:539, Ahmad 3:110, Ahmad 3:165, Ahmad 3:199, Ahmad 3:209, Ahmad 3:225, Ahmad 3:277, Ahmad 3:483, Ahmad 4:227, Tayalisi H193, Tayalisi H2091, Tayalisi H2533)

[lxxxix] (MB2038 Bukhari 8:100)

[xc] (MB2041 Bukhari 8:135)

[xci] (KS68 Abudaud K40 B37, Tirmidhi K25 B85, Darimi K19 B3, Ahmad 4:424)

[xcii] (MB2046 Bukhari 8:154)

[xciii] (MB2037 Bukhari 8:95, KS68 Bukhari K78 B60, Tayalisi H2206)

[xciv] (p821 2:125, 2:187, 22:25)

[xcv] (p241 3:191, 7:185, 10:101, 29:20, 30:50, 50:6-7, 80:24, 88:17-20)

[xcvi] (p242 86:5, 30:8)

[xcvii] (p399 2:164, 3:190-191, 6:99, 7:54, 7:185, 10:67, 10:101, 13:2-4, 16:10-17, 16:65-70, 21:30-33, 23:80-89, 26:24-28, 27:59-64, 28:71-73, 29:19-20, 30:20-25, 30:48-50, 31:10-11, 41:53, 42:28-29, 45:3-5, 51:20-21, 79:27-33, 80:24-32, 86:5-7, 88:17-20).

[xcviii] (p53 2;219, 2:266, 3:191, 10:24, 13:3, 16:11, 16:69, 30:8, 38:29, 39:42, 45:13)

[xcix] (p929 4:82, 6:50, 7:204, 16:44, 17:45-46, 38:29, 47:24)

[c] (p80 2:139, 4:146, 7:29, 10:22, 12:24, 15:40, 19:51, 29:65, 31:32, 37:40-49, 37:74, 37:128, 37:160, 37:169, 38:2-3, 38:83, 39:11, 39:14, 40:14, 40:65, 98:5)

[ci] (KS66 Ahmad 3:225)

[cii] (K552 Bukhari K1 B1, Bukhari K1 B41, Bukhari K49 B6, Bukhari K63 B45, Bukhari K67 B5, Bukhari K83 B23, Bukhari K89 intro, Bukhari K90 B1, Muslim K33 H155, Abudaud K13 B10, Tirmidhi K20 B16, Nisai K1 B59, Nisai K25 B23, Nisai K27 B24, Nisai K35 B19, Ibn Majah K37 B26, Darimi K16 B23, Ahmad 1:25, Ahmad 1:43, Ahmad 2:321, Ahmad 2:373, Ahmad 2:380, Ahmad 5:134, Ahmad 5:183, Ahmad 5:315, Ahmad 5:320, Ahmad 5:329, Ahmad 5:446, Ahmad 6:72)

[ciii]  (KS552 Bukhari K1 B1, Bukhari K1 B41, Bukhari K49 B6, Bukhari K63 B45, Bukhari K67 B5, Bukhari K83 B23, Bukhari K89 intro, Bukhari K90 B1, Muslim K33 H155, Abudaud K13 B10, Tirmidhi K20 B16, Nisai K1 B59, Nisai K25 B23, Nisai K27 B24, Nisai K35 B19, Ibn Majah K37 B26, Darimi K16 B23, Ahmad 1:25, Ahmad 1:43, Ahmad 2:321, Ahmad 2:373, Ahmad 2:380, Ahmad 5:134, Ahmad 5:183, Ahmad 5:315, Ahmad 5:320, Ahmad 5:329, Ahmad 5:446, Ahmad 6:72)

[civ]  (KS552 Bukhari K24 B15, Abudaud K20 B1, 10, Abudaud K40 B82, Tirmidhi K38 B14, Nisai K21 H14, Muwatta K16 H36, Ahmad 1:279, Ahmad 1:310, Ahmad 1:360, Ahmad 1:428, Ahmad 2:234, Ahmad 2:315, 411, Ahmad 3:148)

[cv] (KS553 Ibn Majah K37 B26, Ahmad 2:392)

[cvi] (KS553 Darimi K20, B12)

[cvii] (KS93 Muslim K1 H186) (KS93 Muslim K1 H186)

[cviii] (K93 Bukhari K81 B33, Bukhari K82 B5, Muslim K46 H11, Abudaud K39 B16, Tirmidhi K30 B4, Ahmad 2:167, Ahmad 2:278, Ahmad 2:484, Ahmad 3:120, Ahmad 3:223, Ahmad 3:230, Ahmad 3:257, Ahmad 4:135, Ahmad 4:146, Ahmad 4:200, Ahmad 6:19, Ahmad 6:20)

[cix] (KS94 Bukhari K2 B32, Bukhari K19 B7, Bukjari K30 B52, 64, Muslim K77 B43, Muslim K81 B18, Abudaud K5 B27, Tirmidhi K41 B73, Nisai K9 B13, Nisai K20 B8, Ibn Majah K37 B28, Muwatta K9 H90, Ibn Sa’ad J1 Q2 p103, Ahmad 2:350, Ahmad 6:32, Ahmad 6:46, Ahmad 6:51, Ahmad 6:61, Ahmad 6:84, Ahmad 6:94, Ahmad 6:113, Ahmad 6:125, Ahmad 6:128, Ahmad 6:147, Ahmad 6:165, Ahmad 6:176, Ahmad 6:180, Ahmad 6:189, Ahmad 6:199, Ahmad 6:203, Ahmad 6:231, Ahmad 6:233, Ahmad 6:241, Ahmad 6:244, Ahmad 6:249, Ahmad 6:250, Ahmad 6:267, Ahmad 6:273, Ahmad 6:289, Ahmad 6:304, Ahmad 6:305, Ahmad 6:319, Ahmad 6:320, Ahmad 6:321, Ahmad 6:322, Tayalisi H1398, Tayalisi H 1407, Tayalisi H 1479, Tayalisi H 1609)

[cx] (KS94 Bukhari K19 B18, 20, Bukhari K30 B20, Bukhari K30 B48, Bukhari K30 B49, Bukhari K30 B50, Bukhari K30 B51, Bukhari K30 B55, Bukhari K30 B56, Bukhari K30 B57, Muslim K6 H219, Muslim K6 H220, Muslim K6 H221, Muslim K6 H222, Muslim K6 H223, Muslim K13 H181, Muslim K13 H182, Abudaud K5 B29, Abudaud K14 B54, Nisai K9 B13, Nisai K22 B76, Nisai K2277, Nisai K2278, Muwatta K7 H4, Ahmad 2: Ahmad 2:165, Ahmad 2:173, Ahmad 2:188, Ahmad 2:350, Ahmad 6:40, Ahmad 6:51, Ahmad 6:61, Ahmad 6:84, Ahmad 6:94, Ahmad 6:122, Ahmad 6:128, Ahmad 6:176, Ahmad 6:180, Ahmad 6:189, Ahmad 6:199, Ahmad 6:212, Ahmad 6:231, Ahmad 6:241, Ahmad 6:244, Ahmad 6:247, Ahmad 6:249, Tayalisi H1480, 1497, 2351)

[cxi] (Al Durur al Sunniyyat fi al Ajwibat al Najdiyyat Vol 4 page 376)

[cxii] (p839 7:129, 10:14, 11:7, 18:7, 67:2)

[cxiii] (p849-850 2:134, 2:139, 2:141, 2:240,  2:281, 2:286, 3:25, 3:161, 4:111, 6:164, 7:155, 7:173, 10:41, 14:51, 21:23, 24:11, 26:112, 26:168-169, 26:216, 28:55, 34:25, 40:12, 42:15, 45:22, 52:21, 74:38)

[cxiv] (p840 6:135, 9:105, 11:93, 11:121, 18:110, 34:11, 34:13, 39:39, 41:5, 41:40, 67:15)

[cxv] (p840 2:85, 3:30, 6:132, 11:15, 11:111, 16:93, 16:111, 18:49, 21:59, 23:63, 24:64, 36:54, 37:39, 39:70, 41:46, 45:15, 45:28, 46:19, 47:33, 47:35, 49:14, 52:16, 52:21, 58:6-7, 64:7, 99:7-8, 6:135, 9:105, 11:93, 18:110)

[cxvi] (p841 4:66, 17:18-19, 17:84, 41:40, 73:19, 74:37, 76:29, 78:39, 81:28, 92:4-10)

[cxvii] (p841 9:121, 16:96-97, 24:38, 29:7, 39:35, 46:16)

[cxviii] (p841 3:30, 5:90, 7:28, 11:78, 12:10, 12:32, 12:69, 21:68, 21:74, 26:74, 85:7)

[cxix] (p842 6:43, 6:108, 6:12, 8:48, 9:37, 10:12, 16:63, 18:103-104, 27:4, 27:24, 29:38, 35:8, 40:37, 47:14)

[cxx] (p843 2:282, 5:62, 5:66, 5:79, 9:9, 28:15, 29:4, 58:15, 60:1, 63:2, 63:9)

[cxxi]  (p842 2:231, 3:30, 4:30, 4:123, 7:147, 7:180, 10:106, 16:28, 16:33-35, 25:68, 27:84, 27:90, 28:84, 29:55, 30:41, 31:23, 32:14, 34:33, 40:40, 41:50, 45:33, 53:31, 66:7, 83:36, 99:8)

[cxxii]  (p842 3:135, 4:17-18, 4:110, 6:54, 7:153, 9:102, 16:119, 39:35)

[cxxiii] (p174-176 2:25, 2:82, 2:277, 3:57, 4:57, 4:122, 4:173, 5:9, 7:42, 9:99, 10:4, 10:9, 11:23, 13:29, 14:23, 17:9, 18:2, 18:30, 19:60, 19:96, 20:75, 20:112, 21:94, 22:14, 22:23, 22:50, 23:56, 26:227, 28:68, 29:7, 29:58, 30:15, 30:45, 31:8, 32:19, 32:119, 34:4, 35:7, 41:8, 42:22-23, 42:26, 45:14, 45:30, 47:30, 47:2, 47:12, 48:29, 49:6, 49:11, 64:9, 65:11, 84:25, 85:11, 90:17, 95:6, 98:5, 103:2-3)

[cxxiv] (p844 40:58, 45:21, 98:7, 103:2-3)

[cxxv] (p844-846 2:25, 2:62, 2:82, 2:277, 3:57, 3:136, 3:195, 4:57, 4:114, 4:122, 4:124, 4:173, 5:9, 5:69, 6:127, 7:42-43, 9:120, 10:4, 10:9, 11:11, 11:2, 13:29, 14:23, 16:32, 17:9, 18:2, 18:30-31, 18:107, 19:60, 20:75, 20:112, 21:94, 22:14, 22:23, 22:50, 22:56, 29:7, 29:9, 29:58, 30:15, 30:44-45, 31:8, 32:17, 32:19, 33:31, 34:4, 34:37, 35:7, 37:60-61, 39:74, 40:40, 41:8, 42:22-23, 43:72, 45:30, 46:14, 47:2, 47:12, 48:29, 52:19, 56:23, 64:9, 65:11, 84:25, 85:11, 95:6, 99:7)

[cxxvi] (p 846-7 16:97, 18:88, 19:96, 24:55

[cxxvii]  (p843 24;24, 36:65, 41:20)

[cxxviii] (p847-848 2:74, 2:74, 2:85, 2:96, 2:110, 2:140, 2:149, 2:197, 2:215, 2:233, 2:234, 2:237, 2:265, 2:271, 2:283, 3:98-99, 3:120, 3:153, 3:163, 3:180, 4:94, 4:108, 4:127-128, 4:135, 5:8, 5:71, 5:105, 6:60, 6:108, 6:132, 6:159, 8:39, 8:47, 8:72, 9:16, 9:94, 9:105, 9:120, 10:23, 10:36, 10:46, 10:61, 11:92, 11:111-112, 11:123, 12:19, 14:42, 16:28, 16:91, 18:30, 22:68, 23:51, 24:24, 24:28, 24:41, 24:53, 24:64, 26:188, 27:88, 27:93, 29:8, 31:15, 31:23, 31:29, 33:2, 33:9, 34:11, 35:10, 39:7, 39:70, 41:22, 41:40, 42:25, 45:29, 47:30, 48:11, 48:24, 49:18, 54:152-153, 57:4, 57:10, 58:3, 58:6-7, 58:11, 58:13, 59:18, 60:3, 62:8, 63:11, 64:2, 64:8, 99:6)

[cxxix] (KS256 Ahmad 5:428, Ahmad 5:429)

[cxxx]  (KS93 Ahmad 2:162, Ahmad 2:195, Ahmad 2:212, Ahmad 4:123, Ahmad 4:125, Ahmad 4:398, Tayalisi H2430; KS256 Bukhari K81 B36, Muslim K53 H47, Tirmidhi K34 B48, Ibn Majah K37 B21, Darimi K20 B35, Ahmad 4:313, Ahmad 5:45, Ahmad 5:270, Tayalisi H1120)

[cxxxi] (3:188)

[cxxxii] (KS390 Ibn Majah Intr B2, Darimi Intr B31, Darimi Intr B45)

[cxxxiii] (    )

[cxxxiv] (KS390 Ibn Majah Intr B23, Darimi Intr B26, Darimi Intr B33, Darimi Intr B45, Darimi Intr B55, Ahmad 2:499)

[cxxxv] (KS390 Darimi Intr B23, Darimi Intr B55)

[cxxxvi] (4:82. 47:24)

[cxxxvii] (p241 17:48, 22:15, 25:9, 27:27, 27:33, 37:41, 37:102, 59:18, 74:21)

[cxxxviii] (p241 3:191, 7:185, 10:101, 29:20, 30:50, 50:6-7, 80:24, 88:2-17)

[cxxxix] (p242 30:8)

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule December 2004