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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES-03

0407-LEADERSHIP and MANAGEMENT BY THE BOOK

Paper presented at a Workshop on ‘Is our Current Hospital Practice Islamic Enough: Ideals and Realities’ organized by the Islamic Hospital Consortium of Malaysia at El Azhar Camp, Morib, Selangor 2nd - 4th July 2004  by Prof Dr Omar Hasan Kasule omarkasule@yahoo.com

Introduction

This paper presents some leadership and management concepts from the Qur’an as a basis for discussion on how hospital management can be Islamized. Leadership and management are about dealing with people and getting them to perform. The general principles of leadership and management are universal because humans of all types have common traits of behavior and motivation. However the details of applying the principles may differ in different situations. For example hospital management may differ from factory management in some details.

 

Selection of leaders

It is necessary and obligatory to have leaders[i]. The Qur’an reported that Ibrahim was given leadership after undergoing trial[ii]. Knowledge is the basis for selection of leaders[iii]. Personal ambition for leadership is discouraged[iv]

 

Attributes of good leaders

Allah's gives guidance to good leaders[v]. Justice, objectivity, and honesty are needed in Leadership[vi]. The personality of the leader must have strength and patience[vii]. Musa was very patient with the children of Israil[viii]. The leader must avoid any appearance of impropriety[ix]. The leader must have empathy and respect for followers[x]. He must have leniency, good treatment, and forgiveness[xi]. The leader must have consideration for the followers[xii]. The leader is a protector[xiii]. The leader comforts followers in times of despair[xiv]. The leader must maintain public moral standards[xv]. Leaders learn from mistakes and do not repeat them[xvi]. Good leaders admit ignorance and accept correction[xvii]. The leader must be accessible[xviii]. However the leader must be given some privacy[xix]. The leader should not be cruel[xx]

 

Bad and incompetent leaders

Incompetent leaders are condemned[xxi]. Leadership authority in incompetent hands is a sign of doom[xxii]. One of the signs of the approach of the Last Day will be the disappearance of honesty and when authority is given to those who do not deserve it[xxiii].The Qur’an reported about cruel and arrogant leaders such as Pharaoh[xxiv], Nimrod[xxv], and Dhu Nuwas[xxvi].

 

Functions of leadership

A leader has responsibility[xxvii]. Everybody exercises leadership responsibility[xxviii]. Leadership power is necessary for success for example Sulaiman was a powerful leader[xxix]. The leader must be gradual in obtaining compliance[xxx].

 

Followers

A good leader wants good followers[xxxi]. The leader must be liked by followers[xxxii]. Love by people is indication leader is good[xxxiii]. For success of leadership, the followers must have certain qualities. Bad followers lead to bad leadership. Good followers lead to good leadership. "kama takuunu yuwalla alaikum". The duties of followers include obedience of the leaders[xxxiv]. Followers must give sincere advice to the leaders[xxxv] Good advisors help a leader succeed[xxxvi]. A good leader encourages followers to correct him[xxxvii]. Followers may be disobedient as were the children of Israil with Musa[xxxviii]. Respect for authority is necessary for success of society[xxxix]. Leaders must be obeyed[xl]. There are however limits to this obedience. Leaders can not be obeyed if they violate the Law[xli].

 

Diseases of leaders

Leaders may suffer from certain diseases and weaknesses. Ignorant leaders misguide[xlii]. Oppression and petty-mindedness are condemned[xliii]. Oppressors will be finally punished[xliv]. Bad leaders deceive their followers[xlv]. They may spend time searching for follower faults[xlvi]. They torment followers for no genuine reason[xlvii].

 

Competent workers

The Qur’an enjoins recruitment of capable workers who have strength and honesty[xlviii]. Yusuf was a capable appointee when he was put in charge of the Egyptian Treasury[xlix]. Specialization necessary[l]. Salary should be according to the work done[li]. The worker should not be compelled to work beyond capability[lii]. The worker must be compensated for services[liii].

 

Control of workers

Any complaints against workers must be investigated. Omar sent Muhammad b, Musalamah to investigate complaints against Sa’ad in Iraq[liv]. Workers can be dismissed. Omar dismissed Khalid ibn al Waliid[lv], Abu Musa al Ash’ari[lvi], Sa’ad Ibn Abi Waqqaas[lvii], al Mughiira bin Shu’ubat[lviii]. Al Mughiirah had been accused of adultery. Omar removed him from office and brought him to Madina for investigations.

 

Delegation

Delegation is an important management function. Man is a vicegerent on earth. He is delegated to perform certain tasks for which he is accountable. The delegatee must be obeyed as the dekegator is[lix]. There are many instances in the siirat when the prophet exercised delegation. He delegated tasks[lx]. He sent Mu’adh ibn Jabal to Yaman and checked with him carefully whether he understood the tasks and how he would discharge them[lxi]. Abubakar delegated the collection of the Qur’an to Zayid bin Thabit[lxii]. Omar put Abd al-Rahman b. Awf in charge of the pilgrimage in the year in which he began to rule; thus, Abd al-Rahman led the pilgrimage[lxiii]. Othman delegated the compilation of the Qur’an to a group of companions that included Zayid bin Thabit[lxiv]. The delagatee must be monitored during performance of the delegated tasks. When the prophet put Abuhurairah in charge of sadaqat al fitr, he checked on him every morning on what happened in the night[lxv].


[i] (Abu Daud 2:721, Chapter 933, hadith # 2602)

[ii] (Qur'an 2:124)

[iii] (Bukhari 1:82, hadith # 16,  Muslim 1: 389, Chapter 288, Hadith # 1780, Abu Daud 1:155, hadith # 587)

[iv] (Abu Daud 2:827, Chapter 1090, hadith # 2923)

[v] (Qur'an 21:78-79, Bukhari 9:194-195, hadith # 260', Muslim 3: 1014, Chapter 756, Hadith # 4487)

[vi] (Qur'an 38:26, Bukhari 9:206, Bukhari 9:197 (hadith # 264-265), Abu Daud 2:831, Chapter 1098, Hadith # 2937)

[vii] (Muslim 3: 1015-1016, Chapter 758, Hadith # 4491)

[viii]  (Bukhari 8:78, hadith #122)

[ix] (Muslim 2: 517, Chapter 400, Hadith # 2339, Muslim 2:518-519, Chapter 401, Hadith # 2347,Muwatta 32:3111, hadith #1)

[x] (Qur'an 5:88, Qur'an 26:215, Qur'an 9:128, Abu Daud 2:731-732, Chapter 952, Hadith # 2641)

[xi]  (Muslim 3: 944, Chapter 706, Hadith # 4300, Abu Daud 2:685, Chapter 848, Hadith # 2471, Bukhari 1:60, hadith # 69, Abu Daud 3:1426, Chapter 1842, Hadith # 5143, Bukhari 4:171, hadith # 275, Abu Daud 3:1338, Chapter 1709, hadith # 4756, Abu Daud 3:1427, Chapter 1847, Hadith #5145, Muslim 3: 1016, Chapter 758, Hadith # 4494, Bukhari 4:454, hadith # 683)

[xii] (Bukhari 1:379, hadith # 670, Bukhari 5:443, hadith # 632, Bukhari 1:380, hadith # 673)

[xiii] (Bukhari 4:128-129, hadith # 204)

[xiv] (Tabari 11:194)

[xv] (Hayat al Sahabat 2:721)

[xvi] (Muslim 4: 1541, Chapter 1238, Hadith # 7137)

[xvii] (Bukhari 3:158-159, hadith #277, Bukhari 1;238-239, hadith # 394)

[xviii] (Abu Daud 2:832-833, Chapter 1101, hadith # 2942)

[xix] (Qur'an 33:53)

[xx] (Muslim 3:1018, Chapter 759, Hadith # 4504) (Muslim 3:1018, Chapter 759, Hadith # 4504)

[xxi] (Muslim 1: 82, Chapter 44, Hadith # 264)

[xxii] (Bukhari 1;50-51, hadith # 56)

[xxiii] (Bukhari 8:332, hadith # 503)

[xxiv] (Qur:an 2:49)

[xxv] (Qur'an 21:66-70)

[xxvi] (Buruj: 1-8)

[xxvii] (Abu Daud 1:136, Hadith # 517)

[xxviii] (Abu Daud 2:827, Chapter 1089, hadith # 2922, Muslim 3: 1017, Chapter 758, Hadith # 4496)

[xxix] (Qur'an 27:15-44)

[xxx] (Bukhari)

[xxxi] (Qur'an 25:74)

[xxxii] (Abu Daud 1:156, Hadith #593)

[xxxiii]  (Muslim 4: 1386, Chapter 1097, Hadith # 6375)

[xxxiv] (Muslim 3:1023, Chapter 761, Hadith # 4538, Muslim 3: 1040, Chapter 775, Hadith # 4604)

[xxxv] (Bukhari 1:48, chapter 43)

[xxxvi] (Bukhari 9:235, hadith # 306)

[xxxvii] (Abu Daud 1:231, Chapter 315, Hadith # 907)

[xxxviii] (Qur'an 2:51-61, 5:22-29, 7:148-156, 7:159-162)

[xxxix] (Riyadh 1:371, hadith # 673)

[xl] (Qur'an 4:59, Qur'an 3:32, Qur'an 3:132, Qur'an 4:59, Bukhari 1:375, hadith #662, Muslim 3:1021, Chapter 761, Hadith # 4524, Abu Daud 2:989, Chapter 1307, Hadith # 3467, Bukhari 6:89, hadith # 108)

[xli] (Bukhari 4:128, hadith # 203, Abu Daud 2:726 Chapter 942, Hadith # 2619, Muslim 3:1022, Chapter 761, Hadith # 4536, Bukhari 5:441, hadith # 629)

[xlii]  (Bukhari 1:80, hadith # 100)

[xliii] (Muslim 4: 1366, Chapter 1065, Hadith # 6248)

[xliv]  (Bukhari 6:171, hadith # 208)

[xlv] (Bukhari 9:197, hadith # 265)

[xlvi] (Abu Daud 3:1362, Chapter 1752, Hadith # 4870)

[xlvii] (Muslim 3: 1378, Chapter 1083, Hadith # 6328)

[xlviii]  (Qur'an 28:26)

[xlix]  (Qur'an 12:54)

[l] (Qur'an 9:122)

[li] (Qur'an 46:19)

[lii] (Qur'an 2:233, Qur'an 2:286, Qur'an 6:152, Qur'an 23:62)

[liii] (Bukhari 3:162, hadith # 284)

[liv] (Tabari 13:190-191, Tabari 13:191-192)

[lv] (Tabari 11:162-163, Tabari 11:178-179, Tabari 11:180)

[lvi] (Tabari 15:34-35)

[lvii]  (Tabari 11:176)

[lviii] (Tabari 13:110-114)

[lix] (Bukhari 9:189, hadith # 251)

[lx] (Muslim 2: 943-944, Chapter 706, Hadith # 4294)

[lxi] (Abu Daud 3:1019, Chapter 1347, Hadith # 3581)

[lxii] (Bukhari 6:163-164, hadith # 201, Bukhari 6:477, hadith # 509)

[lxiii] (Tabari 11:224-225)

[lxiv] (Bukhari 6:475, hadith # 507, Bukhari 6:478-479, hadith # 510)

[lxv] (Bukhari 3:289-291, hadith # 505)

Omar Hasan Kasule July 2004