CONCEPT and METHODS OF MOTIVATION IN ISLAM
Motivation can be intrinsic (self motivation), extrinsic (motivation by external rewards), or reactionary (temporary
response to events). Jannat is a positive motivator. Jahannam is a negative motivator. Motivation starts with commitment to an intention Ikhlaas al niyyat. The reward for work is commensurate with the niyyat. Any work without niyyat
is not recognized. The best of work is consistent and continuous. Performace may fall short of the niyyat. Work can be good
work, ‘amal hasan or bad work, ‘amal
sayyi. High job satisfaction is directly related to high motivation. Motivated workers know that work is ibadat and that
Allah observes all they do so they strive for excellence, ihsaan. The salary meets the needs of the worker and family so that
he can devote time and energy to the work and is not a just return for the work. Work is ‘ibadat and only Allah can
recompense for it. Other sources of motivation are honor, sharaf, generosity, karam, and fulfillment, wafaa
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION
Motivated and motivated leaders clarify goals, set objectives, consult and respect followers, deal with followers
kindly, humanely, and with fairness, have good 2-way communication, and make followers feel secure. A motivating work environment
is challenging and meaningful. It has opportunities for advancement, learning and personal growth. It gives responsibility,
independence, and job satisfaction. Positive reinforcement (appreciation, reward and praise) is a motivator. Negative motivation
is due to worries, lack of self-confidence, low self-esteem, low self-worth, negative opinions in the work place, poor working
conditions, poor leadership, inequity, and injustice. Negative reinforecememt such as reprimand demotivates. People should
work because they believe not because they receive. Intrinsic rewards are effective motivators than extrinsic motivators.
Intrinsic rewards are task completion, achievement, autonomy, and personal growth. Extrinsic rewards are salary, benefits,
MOTIVATION IN THE MEDICAL PROFESSION
Students are idealistic on entry into medical school and talk about serving the community. On graduation many students
think about material benefits and social status. A physician in a materialistic society is torn between contradictory forces
of greed and service. Although service should have the higher priority, the material rights and privileges of the physician
should not be forgotten because he also wants to live a happy and honorable life.
MOTIVATION and RESPONSIBILITY
A physician is a community leader who has to undertake tarbiyyah, amr bi maroof, and nahy al munkar.
He is an advocate for the poor, the weak, and the deprived. He has to undertake research to push forward the frontiers of
knowledge. He has to share his knowledge by teaching others. He has responsibility to the environment and posterity.
EARLY MUSLIM PHYSICIANS AS A MOTIVATORAncient Muslim physicians were encyclopedic in knowledge, all-rounded,
motivated, hardworking, and productive. They excelled in medicine as committed Muslims because Islam is not incompatible with
science. Their achievements are a motivator for today’s medical students and physicians. Abubakr Al Razi (251-313H), wrote more than 100 books (the most famous being al Hawi al Kabir), investigated diseases
(gynecologal, obstetrical, hereditary, eye, small pox, and measles), discovered surgical sutures, used anesthetics, used ammonia
to control diarrhea, considered psychological factors in disease treatment, and was director of hospitals in Baghdad and Rayy.
Ibn Sina (370-428H) wrote many books (the most famous being al Qanuun fi al
Tibb), recognized that TB was contagious, accurately described the symptoms of diabetes mellitus, discovered ancylostomiasis,
and contributed to science, mathematics, chemistry, and philosophy. Al Zahrawi (d. 404H) had interest in surgery, pharmacology,
and anatomy. He designed over 200 surgical instruments. His book Kitaab al tasriif,
became a standard textbook of surgery. He was an expert in cancer surgery and tooth extraction. Ibn Zuhr (d. 487H), lived
and Morocco and authored the book al Taysir translated into Latin and used
in Europe. Ibn Rushd (d. 595H) was a philosopher and
a medical practitioner. His book al Kulliyat translated in Europe. He made the observation that smallpox infected
only once. Ibn Al Nafees (d. 686H) described blood circulation before William
Harvey and authored Sharh tashriih al qanuun in which he explained pulmonary circulation.