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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES-03

0406-THE ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM (IIC) AT THE KULLIYAH OF MEDICINE

Presented at the 24th TA’ARUF AND INTELLECTUAL DISCOURSE held at Admiral Marina & Leisure Club, Port Dickson, NS on 5th June 2004 by Prof Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. Deputy Dean, Kulliyah of Medicine, UIAM

Crisis of duality

The main motive of IIC is to resolve the crisis of duality or dichotomy that has weakened Muslim education and Muslim thought since the Muslim world was colonized by Europeans. This crisis manifests as teaching Islamic sciences separately from other disciplines by different teachers and in different institutions. The student is thus presented with two world views that are sometimes contradictory. This causes much intellectual confusion and a state of split mind that fits the description of intellectual schizophrenia.

 

Integration of knowledge

IIC resolves the crisis of duality by insisting that Islamic concepts should be taught by the same people who teach medical and scientific disciplines. At least at the level of the teacher the student is presented with one integrated body of knowledge. The un-Islamic division between the ‘religious’ and ‘the worldly’ is thus eliminated. The integration extends to the subject matter itself. Over the years we have also worked towards integrating Islamic values in the basic and clinical medical sciences. Integration extends to examinations that have issues on Islamic values embedded in the medical questions. The expectation is that our graduates will be able to integrate moral values in their practice of medicine because they went through an integrated education system.

 

Reading the 2 books

IIC follows the Islamic paradigm of reading 2 books, the book of revelation, kitaab al wahy, and the book of empirical science, kitaab al kawn. Both books contain signs of Allah, ayaat al llaah, and must be read together. It is a mistake to read one of the books and neglect the other. The solution to the crisis of duality in the ummah starts from joint reading of the 2 books, al jam ‘u baina al qira atain. Thus medical scientists who are involved in IIC read the signs in both books.

 

Islamization and medical jurisprudence

The vision of IIC has two separate but closely related components: Islamization and legal medicine. Islamization deals with putting medicine in an Islamic context in terms of epistemology, values, and attitudes. Legal medicine deals with issues of application of the Law from a medical perspective including the ‘grey area’ for which simple categorization as good & bad, legal & illegal is not easy. Most of what falls under the rubric of medico-ethical issues in the European communities are actually medico-legal issues for which the Law, shariat, has adequate guidelines.

 

Five main objectives

IIC has 5 main objectives: (a) introduction of Islamic paradigms and concepts in general as they relate to medicine, mafahiim Islamiyat fi al Tibb. (b) strengthening faith, iman, through study of Allah’s sign in the human body (c) appreciating and understanding the juridical, fiqh, aspects of health and disease, al fiqh al tibbi. (d) understanding the social issues in medical practice and research and (e) Professional etiquette, adab al tabiib, from the Islamic perspective.

 

Outcome

We feel that IIC helps the future physician prepare for the heavy trust, the amanat of being professionally competent. He must be highly motivated. He must have personal, professional, intellectual, and spiritual development programs. He must know the proper etiquette of dealing with patients and colleagues. He also must know and avoid professional malpractice. He needs to be equipped with leadership and managerial skills to be able to function properly as a head of a medical team.

 

Structure of the curriculum

 

Block 1

Block 2

Block 3

Block 4

Year 1

A’qidat (creed)

‘Ilm (knowledge)

Tarikh (history)

Hadharat (civilization)

Year 2

Life and Health

Growth and senescence

Biological Miracle

Structure & function

Year 3

Law, ethics, etiquette

Fiqh al ‘ibadat

Fiqh al ‘aadaat (normal)

Fiqh al amraadh (illness)

Year 4

Modern technology

Mu’amalaat

Social Institutions

Social problems

Year 5

Physician formation

Leadership skills

Model leaders

Management skills

 

 

Examinations

        Block examinations for Year 1 and Year 2: 1 out of 5 short notes

        First professional examination: 1 out of 5 short notes

        Block examinations for Year 3, Year 4, and Year 5: Islamic aspects of patient management problems

        Final Professional examination: 10 multiple choice questions

 

Problem of instructors

One of the questions raised about IIC is that of the Islamic qualifications of the medical teachers. This is a challenge and not a problem and we have devised several ways to face it. First of all IIC is not about producing students who are experts in Islamic sciences. It is all about presenting the Islamic persepective of medicine which requires knowledge of only the most elementary Islamic cooncepts that are presumed for any adult Muslim under the paradigm of ‘al ma’alum fi al diinn bi al dharuurat. Secondly most IIC lecturers have gone through a diploma course on Islamic studies. The Kulliyah is now engaged in organizing an advanced Islamic course as a follow-up. Thirdly all the Kulliyah has a manual with all the pedagogical material needed for all lectures. The IIC lecturer is provided with all the teaching material and resources needed. In addition to that special workshops are held to discuss the material. We feel that an IIC lecturer with basic medical education who tries to understand Islamic concepts and apply them to medicine will be more effective with students than a specialist in Islamic studies without any medical background. We however respect subject expertise. Whenever there are issues that require specialist knowledge, experts in fiqh and other Islamic sciences are invited to participate in IIC sessions.


KULLIYAH OF MEDICINE

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, MALAYSIA

SCHEDULE OF THE ISLAMIC INPUT FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2004-2005

PHASE 1 (YEAR 1 and YEAR 2):  P  L  E  N  A  R  Y    L   E   C   T   U   R   E   S

YEAR 1

YEAR 2

 BLOCK 1: ‘AQIIDAT

BLOCK 1: LIFE & HEALTH 

04Jun: Introduction to Islamic Input: Prof Omar

04Jun: Life: Prof Nasaruddin

11Jun: Islam, Iman, & Ihsan: Prof Tahir

11Jun: Death: Dr Adnan

18Jun: Tauhid : Prof Omar

18Jun: Health: Dr Azian

25Jun: Risalat:  Dr. Al Ameen

25Jun: Disease : Dr Azizi

02Jul: Akhirat: Dr Tanver

02Jul: Treatment of Disease: Dr Azizi

09Jul: Qadar: Prof Omar

The Islamic World-View: Prof Kamal

16Jul: ‘Ubudiyyat: Dr Mat Salleh

 

23Jul: Tazkiyat al Nafs: Dr Falah

 

30Jul: Ithm & Ghufran: Dr Yusof

 

06Aug: Kufr & Shirk: Dr Abu Dharr

 

06Aug: Religions & Belief Systems: Dr Abu Dharr

 

Concept of cUbudiyyah: Prof Kamal

 

BLOCK 2: ‘ILM

BLOCK 2: GROWTH & SENESCENCE

03Sep: Nature of Knowledge I: Dr Hasan

20Aug: Intra-uterine Life: A/P Emad

10Sep: Nature of Knowledge II: Dr Hasan

27Aug: Infancy & Childhood: A/P Dr Abd al Wahab

17Sep: Crisis of Knowledge: Prof Tahir

03Sep: Youth: A/P Dr Abd al Wahab

24Sep: Methodology of Knowledge: Prof Omar

10Sep: Middle Age: Prof Pakeer

01Oct: Classical Islamic Sciences: Prof Omar

17Sep: Old Age: Prof Pakeer

08Oct: History of Medical Sciences: Prof Pakeer

IIUM and HRD for the Ummah: Prof Kamal

15Oct: Islamization of Medical Sciences: Prof Omar

 

22Oct: Islamization of Other Disciplines: Prof Omar

 

Islamic Education in Southeast Asia: Prof Kamal

 

BLOCK 3: TARIKH

BLOCK 3: THE BIOLOGICAL MIRACLE

02Dec: Creation of the Universe I: A/P Abd Wahab

05Nov: Perfection & Optimality in Anatomy: A/P Emad

10Dec: Creation of the Universe II: A/P Abd Wahab

12Nov: Perfection & Optimality in Physiology: Dr Sersi

17Dec: Creation of the Human I: A/P Jalaluddin

19Nov: Perfection & Optimality in Biochem Prof Mazida

24Dec: Creation of the Human II: A/P Jalaluddin

26Nov: Control & Homeostasis: Prof Mazidah

31Dec: Khilafat I: Dr Yusof

03Dec: Interaction with  the Environment: Prof Pakeer

07Jan: Khilafat II: Dr Yusof

10Dec: Epidemiology & Statistics: Prof Omar

14Jan: Taskhiir: Dr Abu Dharr

Modernization: Prof Kamal

21Jan: Imarat al Ardh: Prof Omar

 

28Jan: Era of Prophethood: Dr Saeed

 

04Feb: Era of Khilafat, ‘ahad al khilafat: Dr Awang

 

Islam in the Malay World: Prof Kamal

 

BLOCK 4: CIVILIZATIONS

BLOCK 4: STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

04Mar: Concepts of Civilization: Prof Omar

21Jan: Alimentary System: Dr Mat Salleh

11Mar: Ancient Civilizations: Prof Omar

28Jan: Locomotor System: A/P Yusof

11Mar: Cycle of Civilization: Prof Omar

04Feb: Protective Systems: Dr Anis

18Mar: Umayyad Era: Prof Omar

11Feb: Genito-urinary System: Dr Rathor

25Mar: Abassid Era: Prof Omar

18Feb: Cardio-respiratory System: Dr Puteri Melor

01Apr: Osmanli Era: Prof Omar

25Feb: Sensory System: Dr Magdi

08Apr: Other Muslim Civilizations: Prof Omar

11Mar: Nervous System: A/P Emad

15Apr: Achievements of Islamic Civilization:

Globalization: Prof Kamal

22Apr: Tajdid & Islah : Prof Omar

 

Towards A Common Civilization: Prof Kamal

 


KULLIYAH OF MEDICINE

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, MALAYSIA

SCHEDULE OF THE ISLAMIC INPUT FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2004-2005

PHASE II (YEAR 3 and YEAR 4): P  L  E  N  A  R  Y     L   E   C   T   U   R   E   S

Y E A R  3

Y E A R  4

BLOCK 1a: ELEMENTARY CLINICS

BLOCK 1: MODERN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY

12Jun: History Taking: Prof Omar

12Jun: Assisted Reproduction:: Dr Anisah

19Jun: Physical Examination & investigations: Prof Omar

19Jun: Contraception: Dr Murad

26Jun: Etiquette: Patients & Families: Prof Omar

26Jun: Reproductive cloning: Dr Anisah

03Jul: Etiquette: Health Care Team: Prof Omar

03Jul: Abortion: Dr Nurad

10Jul: Etiquette with the Dying: Prof Omar

10Jul: Artificial Life Support: Dr Ariff

BLOCK 1b: FUNDAMENTALS OF LAW & ETHICS

17Jul: Euthanasia: Dr Ariff

17Jul: Over-view: Prof Omar

24Jul: Solid Organ Transplantation: Prof Kamaruzama

24Jul: Sources of the Law: Prof Omar

31Jul: Stem cell transplantantion: Prof Omar

31Jul: Purposes, Principles, & Regulations of the Law: Prof Omar

31Jul: Cosmetic/plastic Surgery: Prof Omar

07Aug: Principles of the Majallat: Prof Omar

07Aug: Animal Research : Prof Nasaruddin

14Aug: Purposes and Principles of  Medicne: Prof Omar

07Aug: Human Research : Prof Tahir

21Aug: Regulations of Medical Procedures: Prof Omar

14Aug: Research Practice: Dato Mahathevan

28Aug: Regulations of Research Procedures: Prof Omar

 

04Sep: Regulations of Physician Conduct: Prof  Omar

 

04Sep: Regulations About Professional Misconduct: Prof Omar

 

 

 

BLOCK 2: FIQH AL ‘IBADAT

BLOCK 2a: TRANSACTIONS

02Oct: Taharat: A/P Dr Emad

18Sep: Medical malpractice: Prof Omar

09Oct: Rulings on Salat, ahkaam al salat: A/P Dr Emad

25Sep: Marriage : Dr Naznin

16Oct: Physical Acts of Salat; A/P Dr Emad

02Oct: Divorce & annulment: Dr Naznin

23Oct: Special Types of Salat: A/P Dr Emad

09Oct: Inheritance: Dr Hasan

30Oct: Salat in Difficult Circumstances: A/P Dr Emad

16Oct: Sales: Prof Omar

06Nov: Saum: Dr Azizi

23Oct: Personal Loans: Prof Kamaruzaman

13Nov: Zakat: Dr Aziz

16Oct: Investments: Prof Omar

20Nov: Hajj: Dr Nasrelddin

23Oct: Endowments: Prof Kamaruzaman

 

BLOCK 2b: CRIMES AND JUDGMENT

 

06Nov: Crimes: Dr Hasan

 

13Nov: Legal competence: Prof Omar

 

13Nov: Judge etiquette, pleas, and evidence: Prof Omar

 

20Nov: Judgment, conviction, and punishment: Prof Omar

 

 

BLOCK 3: NORMAL CONDITIONS

BLOCK 3: SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

08Jan: Menstruation: Dr Anisah

08Jan: Family 1: gender: A/P Naznin

15Jan: Human Sexuality: Dr Anisah

15Jan: Family 2: Social and Marital Relations A/P Naznin

22Jan: Pregnancy and Delivery: Dr Murad

22Jan: Family 3:Parents, relatives, & Children: A/P Naznin

29Jan: Breast feeding: Dr Abd al Wahab

29Jan: The Masjid: Dr Abu Dharr

05Feb: Dr Imad

05Feb: Takaful: Dr Jamaluddin

12Feb: Foods & Drinks: Dr Quazi

12Feb: Shuura: Dr Azizi

19Feb: Activity, Rest, and Sleep: Dr Ariff

19Feb: Wealth: Dr Abd al Wahab

 

 

BLOCK 4: PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

BLOCK 4a: COMMUNITY PROBLEMS

19Mar: Uro-genital system: A/P Dr Azmi

02Apr: Lifestyle: Dr Norfadhilah

26Mar: Cardio-respiratory system: Dr Puteri Melor

02Apr: Sexual perversions: Dr Norfadhilah

02Apr: Connective tissue system: Dr Puteri Melor

02Apr: Addictions: Dr Norfadhilah

09Apr: Alimentary system: Dr Mat Salleh

09Apr: Poverty: Dr Jamaluddin

16Apr: Sensory systems: Dr Anis Shah

09Apr: Violence: Dr Jamaluddin

23Apr: Patho-physiological & general systemic conditions: Dr Melor

BLOCK 4b: SOCIAL ACTION

30Apr: Psychiatric conditions: Dr Umeed

16Apr: Dawa: Dr Azizi


SAMPLE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

 

YEAR 1 BLOCK 1

The following statements are true about the Islamic world view

A. Tauhid is the basis for physical laws in science and technology

B. Social laws have no relation with tauhid

C. Tauhid is the reason for contradictions in the physical universe

D. The perfection of the universe manifests tauhid

E. Tauhid gives purpose to human existence

 

YEAR 1 BLOCK 4

Write a short essay on any of the following topics:

  • Difference between modernization and civilization
  • The strategic importance of hijra
  • The difference between the Makkan and the Madinan periods
  • Islamic civilization in South East Asia
  • The Common Human civilization

 

YEAR 2 BLOCK 2

The following statements are true about the definition of death

A. The concept of moral death has no basis in the Qur’an

B. The legal definition of death changes with growth of knowledge

C. The biological definition of death is very straightforward

D. Death is considered permanent with cessation of all physiologicasl functions

E. Sleep is a temporary form of death

 

YEAR 3 BLOCK 3

A 45 year old woman with prolonged menses of 2 weeks’ duration with a suprapubic mass corresponding to a 14 week size of a gravid uterus. Her periods were normal and regular before this. What advice will you give her regarding salat

 

A 5 year old boy with signs of kidney failure and the parents think he has been charmed and should seek traditional treatment. Explain how you would deal with this situation using Islamic teachings

 

How would you deal with a case of intestinal obstruction seeking advice about saum and salat.

 

How would you deal with a 60 year old with symptoms of stroke inquires about wudhu and salat

 

 

YR4 BLOCK 3

How would you convince a 29-year old man with right pneumothorax refuses to consent to insertion of a chest tube fearing damage to his internal organs

 

YEAR 5 FINAL PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION

1. The following statements are true about infections/contagion

  1. Visiting a person with a contagious disease is prohibited
  2. Isolation of persons with contagious disease is discriminatory and is prohibited
  3. Discovery of a contagious disease in a spouse after marriage is a valid reason for nullification of marriage
  4. Discrimination of people with contagious diseases like HIV is allowed because they are to blame for their disease
  5. Excluding persons with contagious disease from congregational salat is recommended

 

2. The following statements are true about traumatic injury

A.     Wudhu and ghusl can be valid by wiping over bandaged wounds

  1. A physically disabled person should pray as much as they can and cannot stop abandon salat
  2. Impotence due to paraplegia can be a valid basis for nullification of marriage
  3. Employment of the physically handicapped should consider their condition and not compel them to do work beyond ability
  4. Some physical handicaps like blindness and deafness disqualify a person from being a judge

 

3. The following statements are true about psychiatric conditions

  1. There is no obligation of hajj on a person with borderline personality who could break down under stress
  2. A person with a borderline personality can be  excused from fasting is the fasting is feared to be a stressor that could precipitate a psychiatric crisis
  3. Persons with severe personality disorders should not be allowed to marry
  4. Contracts or court testimony by persons with personality disorders that affect free will are not valid
  5. There is no liability for crimes in a person with underlying personality disorders that are genetically-determined

 

4. The following statements are true about respiratory disorders

  1. There is no obligation of congregational salat for person with upper respiratory infection for fear of spreading the infection
  2. Persons with contagious respiratory infections should be isolated in hajj
  3. Physical movements of salat can be decreased in states of dyspnea
  4. Recitation in salat can be abandoned in cases of a repetitive cough
  5. Salat cannot be delayed in status asthmaticus

 

5. The following statements are true about cardiovascular disorders

  1. Tayammum is enjoined if cold water triggers Reynaud's syndrome
  2. Tayammum is enjoined in cases of varicose veins and phlebitis
  3. Tawaaf can be delayed if physical movements of  salat dislodge an embolus in DVT
Physical movements of salat can be limited if physical movements of  salat dislodge an embolus in DVT

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. June 2004