Islamization is a process of recasting the corpus of human knowledge to conform to the basic tenets of aqidat al tauhid. All true knowledge whatever its kind and source is Islamic. Islamic knowledge has no time or
space constraints because Islam is universal being suitable for every place and time. Islamized knowledge is for the benefit
of all humanity and not monopolized by Muslims. Islamization is a corrective reformative movement. The process of Islamization
does not call for re-invention of the wheel of knowledge but calls for reform, correction, and re-orientation. Islamization
is an evolutionary and not revolutionary movement. The vision of Islamization of knowledge is accelerated growth of objective,
universal knowledge that is beneficial to all humanity and allows a harmonious interaction of humans with their physical,
social, and spiritual environment. The practical mission is conceptual transformation of the paradigms, methodologies, and
uses of disciplines of knowledge to conform to tauhid.
Guided by empirical scientific spirit of the Qur’an, Muslims must be innovative, creative, and researchers
in basic and applied medical sciences so that they may become leaders of the disciplines. A medical student starts by commitment
to discipline reform process. He must master his discipline well. He should then get basics of Islamic methodology from usul al fiqh, ‘uluum al Qur’an
and ‘uluum al hadith to be able to critique the basic paradigms of the discipline
on the basis of tauhid and the universal and perennial values of Islam. This is
followed by research, publishing, teaching, networking, and inspiring others.
The vision of the Kulliyah’s program has two separate but closely related components: Islamization and legal
medicine. Islamization deals with putting medicine in an Islamic context in terms of epistemology, values, and attitudes.
Legal medicine deals with issues of application of the Law from a medical perspective including the ‘grey area’
for which simple categorisation as good & bad, legal & illegal is not easy. The program contributes to the Islamization
of medical sciences by bridging the dichotomy between traditional Islamic sciences and the medical sciences. The program basically
tries to provide an Islamic intellectual and cultural context for medical concepts and practice. The approach has not been
confined to technical aspects of medicine but has gone beyond to explore social, cultural, and epistemological issues that
have an impact on the teaching and practice of medicine. The program can be used as a basis for further development of Islamic
Medicine concepts. It is hoped that students of medicine who go through this program will be inspired to write and develop
new concepts of Islamic Medicine. The program also contributes to the evolution of an system of Islamic legal medicine with
guidelines that can help the Muslim physician and the patient make the best decisions in difficult circumstances that arise
out of the recent developments in medical technology. Most of what falls under the rubric of medico-ethical issues in the
European communities are actually medico-legal issues for which the Law, shariat,
has adequate guidelines.
FIVE MAIN OBJECTIVES, ahdaaf asaasiyyat
(a) Fundamental concepts and paradigms
The first objective is the introduction of Islamic paradigms and concepts in general, mafahiim islamiyyat ‘aamat, and as they relate to medicine, mafahiim
Islamiyat fi al Tibb. The Muslim physicians must have some general concepts deriving from Islamic teachings that can guide
their work and research. These concepts can be grouped in five major categories: the Islamic creed, aqidat Islamiyyat; general concepts of knowledge and epistemology, \ilm
& marifat; civilization, ‘imarat al ardh; concepts of life and health,
hayat & sihhat; and structure and function of the human organism, tarkiib wa wadhaif al a’adha. The medical student and future physician must understand medicine in the
ummah from historic and futuristic perspectives, tarikh wa mustaqbal al tibb. The medical student is motivated and inspired by appreciating the medical heritage of the Muslim civilization.
Knowledge of the evolution of medical knowledge and practice since the first century of hijra
and achievements of Muslims in medicine have been ignored by western scholars and have been poorly documented by Muslims.
This knowledge is an indispensable component of the Islamic intellectual heritage. Few Muslim physicians know the medical
and intellectual heritage of medical knowledge in the Qur'an, tibb qur’ani,
and the hadith, tibb nabaw. Islamization
of medical sciences is a challenge that does not aim at producing different knowledge but at producing medical and scientific
knowledge within an ethical and moral context.
(b) Medicine and revelation
The second objective is strengthening faith, iman, through study of
Allah’s sign in the human body. Medicine and medical knowledge have been described as the altar of faith, al tibb mihrab al iman. Study of medicine leads to the conclusion that there must be a powerful and deliberate
creator because such a sophisticated organism could not arise by chance. Contemplation of the structure and functioning of
the human body lead a normal person to appreciation of the power of the Creator and to believe in Him. This is achieved by
contemplating the perfection, optimality, and sophistication of human biology starting from the sub-cellular to more sophisticated
structures like tissues and organs; contemplating the order, harmony, and purposiveness of human growth and development; contemplating
human senses and organ systems as a gift from Allah; and contemplating the tauhidi integrating paradigm as reflected in the
well coordinated body physiology and interaction of the human organism with the
(c) Medicine and the law
The third objective is appreciating and understanding the juridical, fiqh,
aspects of health and disease, al fiqh al tibbi. There is a close interaction between
injunctions of Islamic law, shariat, and medical practice. Muslim physicians must
be aware of the general concepts so that they can give preliminary advice to the patients. Diseases and their treatment interfere
with the patient’s duties to Allah and also to other humans by limiting legal rights and obligations. Difficult and
fine choices must be made. Well-trained physicians should be able to understand the various options available and to explain
them well to enable the patient make an informed decision. Legal aspects of medicine can be categorized in five groups: medical
and health issues of the physical acts of worship such as salat,saum, zakat, &
haj; normal physiological processes of breast-feeding, menstruation, pregnancy, excretion of body wastes, nutrition, sleep,
and reproduction; the impact of disease on ibadat obligations and the impact
of disease on human and social obligations; medical aspects of applying the Law using medical and forensic evidence. Included
under the rubric of the Law is a group of issues that constitute medical ethics in Europe.
The physician is the first recourse to patient and their families in trying to make an informed decision when confronted
by an ethical issue. The physician is not expected to make a legal ruling, fatwa. He
must however know and understand the issues involved from Islamic and medical perspectives and guide the patients to the most
appropriate choices. Controversial legal issues arise in medical care and medical research which involve serious violations
of human and animal rights.
(D) Social issues
The fourth objective is understanding the social issues in medical practice and research, al qadhaya al ijtima’iyat fi al tibb. Medicine is not taught or practised in a social or ethical vacuum.
Good physicians must understand how social problems and issues impact on health, disease and medical treatment. They also
must appreciate how medical practice can create or solve social problems. The physician must know societal institutions and
how they affect disease occurrence and disease management. He must be able to identify social causes of disease from the context
of a social system to be able to plan the eradication of social root causes of disease.
(f) Professional etiquette, adab al tabiib
The physician carries a heavy trust, the amanat of being professionally
competent. He must know the proper etiquette of dealing with patients and colleagues. He must understand that medicine is
a service vocation and not a way to self-enrichment.
TAUHIDI HOLISTIC COMPREHENSIVE APPROACHThe manual is written from a holisitic tauhidi paradigm that does not look at medicine as a science and art isolated from the rest of society and human
endeavours. When medical issues are discussed, reference is made to relevant social and spiritual aspects. A basic paradigm
of this manual is that medicine and medical treatment are comprehensive involving physical, psychological, social and
moral aspects. It therefore tries to be inclusive and discuss all factors that directly or indirectly affect human wellbeing
or ill health. This paradigm is a practical consequence of the integrative tauhidi
paradigm that is the basis of the Islamic civilization. The curriculum aims at universality and integration. Medicine
is not a collection of sub-specialties but an integrated whole. Medicine in integrated with other disciplines in a multi-disciplinary
approach to solving human problems. Disease and its treatment at seen from the context of the whole eco-system. Lack of integration
with the eco-system leads to new problems being created while solving old ones. The medical curriculum for which this manual
is prepared aims at producing a well-rounded physician who is not only skilled in scientific medicine but also understands
the spiritual and social aspects of disease. Such a physician looks at the patient as a whole person living in a social and
spiritual milieu and not just as a collection of symptoms and signs. The physician’s approach to medical problems is
not only scientific and technical. It extends to other aspects of the patient’s life that affect overall well-being.