Talk at the Islamic Orientation Programme of UIA at the De Rhu Beach Resort, 23rd June 2002 by Prof Omar Hasan Kasule


·        A group is several persons being interdependent and interacting with one another

·        Types of groups: teams, task forces, self-directed work-teams, families, tribes, clans, fraternities, family, clan, tribe, nation, religion, and the Ummah.

·        Muslims are enjoined to mobilize in groups (Qur'an 4: 71)

·        Group must be solid (Qur'an 61:4)

·        Cooperation in doing good is the basis for group work (Qur'an 5:2)

·        Openness and trust in the group. Secrecy & concealment destroy groups (Qur'an 58:9-10)

·        Secret talks between some members of the group are prohibited (Qur'an 4: 114).

·        Similarity is the basis for group formation (Bukhari 4:348, hadith #).

·        People are attracted to those like themselves (Bukhari 8:122-123, hadith # 196).

·        Empathy for one another being the similitude of one body or one physiological entity (Muslim 3: 1368, Chapter 1067, Hadith # 6258).

·        Members should support one another so that they stand together like a strong wall. They are like a building whose different parts reinforce one another (Bukhari 8:34, hadith #55).

·        Separation from group is condemned (Abu Daud 3:1332, Chapter 1706, Hadith # 4740).

·        Islam encourages working in groups but makes it clear that seclusion is better than bad company (Bukhari 8:332, hadith # 502).

·        The excellence of work in a group is illustrated by congregational prayer whose reward is 25 times that of a solitary prayer (hadith No. 620" Bukhari 1:277, hadith # 466, Muslim 1:314, Chapter 234, Hadith #1360, Bukhari 1:351, hadith # 618).

·        A group must adhere to and respect some norms. Allowing some members to break the norms will destroy the group (Bukhari 3:406, hadith # 673).

·        Advantages of group work: integration, stimulation, motivation, innovation, emotional support, and endurance.

·        Stages in group formation: forming (acquaintance and learning to accept one another), storming (emotions and tensions), initial integration (start of normal functioning), total integration (full functioning), and dissolution.

·        Behavioral diseases that destroy groups:: hasad, nifaq, namiimah, gaybah, kadhb, riyah, kibriyah, hubb al riyasa, tajassus, and dhun al soo. Seeking personal credit for group work alienates and demotivates. Denying credit where it is due annoys and alienates.

·        Characteristics of the ideal group: follows the Qur'an and sunnat in all its activities, members in the group must feel secure and not suppressed, understanding and sincere practice of group dynamics, all members must be competent and committed to the group, and every group must have a leader.



Basic duties and rights of brotherhood: returning greetings, following the funeral procession, accepting invitations, visiting the sick, and responding to sneezer.


Additional duties and rights of brotherhood: tolerance, forgiveness, helping the oppressed, solving problems, fulfilling needs, compassion and kindness, gratefulness, protecting the honor of others, fulfilling promises and commitments, respect, sincere advice or nasiiha,, and avoiding underrating and humiliating others


Inter-personal interaction:

·        Greeting is necessary whenever members meet again even after a short separation

·        A small group will initiate greeting the larger group

·        The walking person initiates greeting the one sitting down

·        Everybody must be greeted whether known or not known

·        Those in an assembly must make room for any new comer

·        2 individuals should not engage in secret conversation in the presence of others

·        Standing up when a person enters is a sign of respect

·        You should not force a sitting person from his seat

·        A person goes away for a temporary period, he has the right to reclaim his seat


Positive behaviors and attitudes:

·        Mutual love, tawadud

·        Empathetic caring for one another, rahmat & hilm

·        Leniency, rifq, in everything

·        Co-operation and mutual support, ta'awun

·        Ggenerosity, karam

·        Truthfulness, sidq

·        Patience, sabr

·        Modesty, haya

·        Cheerful disposition, imbisaat

·        Calling people by their favourite names, ahabb al asma

·        Recognising the rights and the position of the older, irfan haqq al kabir

·        Self control in anger, malk al nafs inda al ghadhab


Negative behaviors and attitudes:

·        Harshness in speech

·        Rumour mongering, namiimat

·        Excessive praise of others in their presence, al ghulw fi al thana

·        Mutual jealousy and turning away from other, tahasud & taba'ud, & tadabur

·        Avoiding interaction with a colleague, hijrat, for more than 3 days

·        Anger, ghadhab

·        Spying on the privacy of others, tatabu'u awrat al nas

·        Avoid repeating the same mistake twice

·        Not to volunteer information about your personal weaknesses, al satr ala al nafs

©Copyright Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr June 2002