Lecture for Year 3 medical students on June 16 & June 30, 2001 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.



Conditions of obligation: Three conditions are considered in fasting: age, mental condition, and physical condition. Obligation to fast the month of Ramadhan is on those who have reached puberty or the age of 15. Fasting of children (MB 954) is for training but is not obligatory. The insane and those with physical conditions that can be aggravated by fasting are exempted. The sick are allowed to make up for lost days later (p. 718 2;183-185). Excuse from fasting may be or may not be accompanied by kaffaarat. Excuse from saum with no kaffarat occurs in the following conditions excuse from fasting and do not have to make it up: Old age, shiekh kabiir; weakness, 'ajz; and illness with no hope of cure, maradh muzmin. In these cases no kaffaarat is paid. Excuse from saum with kaffarat occurs in the following conditions that permit breaking the fast but with make-up later with payment of kaffaarat: travel, safar; illness with recovery expected;  mistakes in saum such as eating or drinking forgetfully?.


Non-obligatory fasting, siyaam al tatawu'u: The following are permitted non-obligatory fasting: fasting Mondays and Thursdays (BG 552, KS 327), 9th and 10th of Muharram, fasting 6 days in the month of shawal (BG 553, KS 327), fasting 3 days in every lunar month: 13th, 14th, and 15th (KS 327, BG 556). …of the month of Sha'abaan (BG 563), fasting the day of Arafat for the pilgrim, 9th of Dhil al Hajj (KS 327, BG 566), and fasting the sanctified months, ashhur al hurum. The woman can fast non-obligatory fasts only with consent of her husband (BG 557). Decisions of non-obligatory fasting should consider three types of rights: rights of the self,  haqq al nafs; rights of the family, haqq al ahl (MB 962), and rights of the body, haqq al jasad (MB 963). A balance is needed among these rights. A balance must also be established between fulfilling these rights and ibadat.


The fasting of Nuh was all his life except the days of eid (KS 328). The fasting of Daud was fasting on alternate days (KS 330)


Prohibited fasting: The following types of fasting are forbidden: fasting of the 2 days of eid al fitr and eid al adh-ha (BG 558, KS 327), fasting during ayaam al tashriik (BG 559, BG 560), singling out Friday as a day of fasting (BG 561, 562), fasting in the second half of the month of sha’abaan, continous fasting, wisaal (KS 330), life-time fasting, saum al dahar (KS 328), fasting a doubtful day, fasting in the second half of sha'abaan, and purposely planning to fast on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday



Fasting 3 days during hajj and 7 after return to home country

Fasting 60 days for sexual intercourse in Ramadhan


REGULATIONS & ETIQUETTE, ahkam & adab al saum


Fasting has its own etiquette (MB #925). Fasting of Ramadhan is obligatory and is one of the pillars of Islam (KS 325). Fasting is obligatory for adult, sane, and healthy Muslims. The wife must get her husband's permission for non-obligatory fasting. Such permission is not needed for the fasting of Ramadhan (KS 333). Children are told to fast from the age of 7 years. If a person deliberately breaks the Ramadhan fast with no valid excuse he must fast two consecutive months (KS 332) for each day. Excessive hunger or thirst that are feared to harm health are a valid excuse to break the fast and make up later. If a person eats or drinks in forgetfulness then all they have to do is to complete the day and the day is considered valid (KS 333). A non-obligatory fast can be broken at any time but must be redone, qadha (KS 333). A guest does not fast non-obligatory fasts except with the permission of the host (KS 330). Fasting takes place in the month of Ramadhan. It is part of the new civilisation ushered in by Islam that Muslims have to determine accurately the start and end of Ramadhan and have to watch the calendar carefully. The start and end of the Ramadhan is determined by the sight of the crescent (KS 326). Testimony of one reliable witness is sufficient to establish the sight of the crescent. It is forbidden to fast a day of doubt, siyam yawm al shakk. Non-obligatory fasting is forbidden in the second half of the month of sha'abaan to avoid mix-up with the month of Ramadhan (KS 326, 327). The niyyat for non-obligatory fasting must be made before noon.


Pillars of fasting: Fasting has two main pillars, arkaan al saum: intention, niyyat al saum and abstinence from food or drink, imsaak 'an al ta'aami wa al sharaabi.


The merits of fasting, fadhl al siyaam, are many and varied. The spiritual merits are expiation of sins. The medical merits are appetite and weight control. The social merits arise from the self control and self-discipline. The fasting person is enjoined to desist from quarelling, loud talk, cruel acts, forged talk. Fasting also helps in sexual self control.

Etiquette of fasting: The following are etiquettes of fasting,  adaab al siyam: Intention of fasting, niyyat al siyaam, before fajr (BG 532); delaying  suhuur such that there is a very short time remaining before fajr (MB 935); hastening breakfast (MB 952, BG 534, BG 535),  breaking the fast with dates and water (BG 536), avoiding overeating at breakfast or suhuur, and avoiding falsehood or foolishness during fasting (BG 538).


Start and end of fasting: Start and end of the month of fasting is based on seeing the crescent, al saum wa al iftaar bi ru'uyat al hilaal (MB 928-929). In cloudy skies, completion of Ramadhan is by counting 30 days from the start of the fasting (BG 527). It is prohibited to fast 1 or 2 days before Ranadhan (MB 932, BG 527). It is prohibited to fast a doubtful day (BG 528).


Permitted acts of fasting: The following are permitted during the day: using the tooth-pick, siwaak; washing or bathing in water with care being taken not to swallow any water; applying kuhl (BG 543); kissing a spouse if there is no fear of sexual temptation; injection of medication, venupuncture or cupping (MB 92, BG 540, BG 542), washing or rinsing inside the mouth and nostrils. Swallowing saliva needs to be clarified. Since salivary glands continually produce saliva during fasting and other times, it would accumulate in the mouth unless swallowed. There is therefore continous unconscious swallowing of saliva in small quantities. If this is forbidden any person fasting will be required to spit saliva on a continuous basis that will be a source of inconvenience.


Recommended acts of fasting, sunan al siyaam, MANDUUBAAT AL SAUM: Salaat al tarawiih in a community mosque is highly recommended. There is high  merit of standing up in prayer during Ramadhan, fadhl qiyaam ramadhan (MB 972). There is high merit in itikaaf in the last 10 days of Ramadhan (MB 978). Itikaaf (2:187)can be only during the night (MB 980). A person in itikaaf can enter the home for a need (MB 979). Normal marital relations are not allowed during itikaaf (p. 719 2:187). Dua at break-fast (KS 331). Suhuur: There is blessing , barakat, in suhuur (KS 331). delaying suhuur, ta'akhiir al suhuur (KS 331). Suhuur is not compulsory (MB 936) but is highly recommended. Hastening iftar, ta'ajiil al iftar (KS 330). Generosity, al juud. Joining kindred relations, silat al rahm. Recitation of the Qur'an, tilawat al Qur'an. Serving breakfast for those fasting. Feeding the fasting person: The reward of the person giving breakfast is equivalent to that of one who fasts, al taim ka al saim (KS 334). Major ablution before salat al fajr. Avoiding back-biting, ghaibat, telling lies, kadhb, and obscenities, fahsh. Delaying unnecessary medical treatment


Offensive acts of fasting, makruhaat al siyaam: It is offensive to perform continuous day and night fasting, wisaal (MB 955, MB 956, BG 537). Fasting every day for life, siyam al dahr, is discouraged. Kissing is offensive for young couples or those who can not control themselves from sexual arousal (BG 539).


Prohibitions of fasting, muharramaat al siyaam: Sexual intercourse is forbidden in the day but allowed at night (p. 718 2:187, MB 933). Sexual intercourse during the day leads to severe punishment: fasting 2 consecutive months or feeding 60 poor (MB 941, BG 549). Eating and drinking are forbidden during the day but are allowed at night (p. 718 2:187, MB 934). Eating and drinking in forgetfulness (MB 940) or eating before sunset by mistake (MB 953) do not invalidate fasting; the day is completed with no need to repeat.


Nullification of fasting, mubtilaat al siyaam: The following abrogate fasting and require make-up, qadha: deliberate eating and drinking, akl 'amdan; Use of snuff or tobacco in the nose, Putting water in the ear until it reaches the ear-drum, Excessive madhmadhat, Excessive istinshaaq, Swallowing saliva and phlegm is a matter of controversy among the scholars, Insanity or loss of consciousness even if temporary, Any penetration by any object or material into the body cavity. Intra-muscular and intra-venous injections are excepted; deliberate sexual intercourse, jimaa'u. Sexual intercourse: Vaginal coitus or any other sexual act that leads to orgasm nullifies the fasting. Sexual intercourse, al jimau, in Ramadhan is a serious offense with a punitive punishment (KS 332). The punishment imposed on the man and not the woman is to fast 60 consecutive days for each day nullified or feeding 60 poor people, masakin. Non-coital relations with the wife are allowed but with strict limitations that depend on the age (KS 332). menstruation, haidh; post-natal bleeding, nifaas; masturbation, istimnaan; ?eating or sexual intercourse by mistaking time to be after maghrib. Spontaneous vomiting does not require atonement but induced vomiting does (BG 545). Hormonal preparations should not be used to delay menstruation in order to avoid breaking the fasting of Ramadhan.


ACTIVITIES THAT DO NOT NULLIFY THE FASTING: Wet sexual dream (KS 333). Cupping, hijaam (KS 333). We have to consider the patient, al mahjuum, and the cupper, al haajim, separately. Madhmadhat

Istinshaaq. Tepid sponging for a fever patient, tabarrud (KS 333)


Measures to prevent physiological harm: The prophet (PBUH) taught measures to ensure that fasting does not cause physiologic damage. Fasting continuosly from day to day, wisaal, was forbidden (KS330: Bukhari K30 B20, Bukhari K20 B48-50, Bukhari K96 B5,  Muslim K13 H55-61, Abu Daud K14 B25, Tirmidhi K6 B62, Darimi K4 B14, Muwatta K18 H38-39, Muslim #2426, 2427, 2429, 2430, 2433, 2434, 2435). Early breakfast was recommended (KS330 Bukhari K30 B45, Muslim K13 H47-51, Abu Daud K14 B21, Tirmidhi K6 B13, Nisae K22 B23, Ibn Majah K7 B24, Darimi K4 B11, Muwatta K18 H6-8). Travelers were exempted from fasting (KS330-331 Bukhari K30 B33-38, Bukhari K30 B43-45, Bukhari K56 B71 &134,  Bukhari K64 B47, Muslim K130 H52-54, Muslim K130 H88-109, Abu Daud K14 B20 & 43-45, Tirmidhi K22 B46-62 & 74, Ibn Majah K7 B10-12, Darimi K4 B15-16, Muwatta K18 H22-26, Muslim # 2467, 2468, 2470, 2471, 2472, 2474, 2475, 2476, 2477, 2479, 2480, 2481, 2482, 2483. Delaying suhuur was recommended (KS 331 Hakim p. 147). A menstruating woman is temporarily exempted from fasting but she has to replace the days missed (    ). Women in post-natal bleeding are exempted from fasting (   ). Exemption from fasting is also given to the pregnant woman, the breast-feeding woman, the elderly, and the sick (KS334: Bukhari  K65 surat 2 B25, Tirmidhi K6 B21, Nisae K22 B51 & B62 & B64, Ibn Majah K7 B21, Muwatta K18 H25).


Medical guidelines for fasting: The aim should be maintaining normal body weight or actually reducing it if overweight. Over-eating at iftaar and suhuur should be avoided. Over-eating will cause indigestion. The diet should contain sufficient fiber to prevent constipation. Fiber and slowly digested foods with a long stomach transit times are preferred. Enough water should be taken at night both for preventing dehydration and preventing constipation. Adequate fluid and salt intake prevents lethargy in the afternoon caused by low blood pressure. Hunger is a cause of headache especially later in the day. Intake of adequate calcium, magnesium, and pottassium will prevent muscle crumps. Hot places should be avoided. Attempts should be made to keep cool. Inadequate sleep is a cause of headaches. In non-diabetics hypoglycemia may be due to insulin overproduction on intake of refined sugar. In diabetics it may arise due to insulin injections with inadequate dietary intake. Peptic ulcers are aggravated by raised acid levels. Kidney stones may be due to low fluid intake. Joint pains may be due to excess solutes.



Travel: The prophet fasted on a journey (MB 943) and also broke the fast on another journey (BG 546). A Muslim may or may not fast on a journey (MB 944, MB 945, MB 946, MB 947, and MB 948). It is however preferable to take the exemption and break the fast during a jouney.


Difficult weather: Fasting in conditions of extreme heat leads to dehydration. Care should be taken to take enough fluids at suhuur and not to expose oneself to extreme environmental temperatures. In very cold areas, the metabolic rate is raised to be able to generate sufficient heat for maintaining body temperature. In such conditions extra care should be taken to consume enough food and to cover oneself properly to minimize heat loss. Regions of the world near the two poles may have extremely long days in summer and very short ones in winter. It is recommended that the times of suhuur and iftaar of the nearest temperate region should be followed rather than following local sun-rise and sunset.


FASTING OF THE SICK, saum al maridh and FASTING OF THE OLD, saum al kabiir. The following are allowed to break the fast and pay kaffarat: The elderly, al shaikh (KS 334), the terminally ill patient, the pregnant woman, al hublah (KS 334) if fasting is a risk to the health of the fetus and not the mother, and the Breast-feeding woman or nursing woman, al murdhi' (KS 334) if fasting is a risk to the health of the baby. Breast-feeding woman or nursing woman, al murdhi' (KS 334) if fasting is a risk to the health of the mother.


Menstruating woman, al haidhah (KS 334): The exemption is obligatory. Any fasting by a mestruating woman in invalid. Woman in post-partum bleeding, nifaas (   ). The exemption is obligatory. Any fasting undertaken in the post-partum period is invalid. The very sick with chronic disease and the elderly do not fast but feed the poor instead (BG 548). The heirs can perform make-up fasting, qadha al saum, for days missed by a deceased disabled by disease in terminal illness (MB 948, MB 950, BG 551).



The following are allowed to break the fast but must make up later. The make-up must be before the next Ramadhan. If the make-up is delayed until the next Ramadhan comes, kaffarat becomes due by feeding the poor. The sick, al maridh (KS 328, KS 334). The Traveller, al musafir  (KS 331). The fast of a traveller who chooses not to take the exemption is valid. The Pregnant woman, al hublah (KS 334) if the fasting is a possible risk to the mother's health. The Breast-feeding woman or nursing woman, al murdhi' (KS 334) if fasting is a risk to the health of the mother. The menstruating woman, al haidhah (KS 334): The exemption is obligatory. Any fasting by a mestruating woman in invalid. The Woman in post-partum bleeding, nifaas (   ). The exemption is obligatory. Any fasting undertaken in the post-partum period is invalid.



The general rule is that any substance that enters the body through any of its openings, manfadh, nullifies fasting. The openings are the two ends of the alimentary canal, the mouth and the anus. All drugs that are applied externally on the skin do not nullify fating. Use of eye drops does not nullify fasting. Nose drops may nullify fasting because they could drop into the pharynx and be swallowed. Inhalants also nullify fasting. Sub-cutaneous, intra-muscular, and intra-venous injections do not nullify fasting. However nourishing injections nullify the purpose of fasting. Drugs of whatever form taken orally or anally nullify fasting. Sub-lingual pills are allowed. The use of siwaak is allowed. Toothpaste can be used provided care is taken not to swallow any of it. The mouth can be rinsed with pure water with care being taken to avoid swallowing.



Breaking routines: Fasting breaks the normal routines of life that revolve around meals. It creates a different psychological milieu that liberates the mind from the routines of life and gives it an opportunity to reflect on the bigger issues of the creator, the good and the bad.


Empowerment: A fasting person is able to control the appetite for food and to withstand hunger for a whole day. This is an exercise in self-control and self-discipline that empowers the person. This empowerment can be transferred to other life activities. Fasting is a means of instilling sexual self-control, al saum li man khaafa al 'uzuubat (MB 927).



Zakat al maal is obligatory (p. 531 2:43, 2:83, 2:110, 4:77, 9:5, 9:11, 22:78, 24:56, 33:33, 58:13, 70:24-25, 73:20, 98:5, MB 702, BG 483). The obligation is when a person has held a minimum taxable amount, nisaab, for 1 year, hawl. The obligation is related to the property and not the person. Males or females, adults or children are all obliged to pay zakat. For example the wealth of a minor or an insane is zakatable although they are both exempt from other legal obligations. The orphan's wealth must be invested otherwise it will be exhausted by annual zakat payments (BG 491). The legal guardian of a child or an insane person is obliged to pay zakat from their respective wealth. Zakat is no obligatory for non-Muslims. Debts do not remove the obligation of zakat. Zakat can be paid in advance. Zakatable property includes metals, paper money, trade goods, crops, and livestock. The beneficiaries: The recipients of zakat al maal were explained in the Qur'an (    ) and the sunnat (KS 261). The 8 categories of recipients are: (a) The poor, al faqir, defined as one who does not have enough wealth to live on, can not work or can not find work. (b) The destitute, maskin, is one who is short of money. (c) Zakat workers, al amilun alaiha (d) Those whose hearts are being reconciles, muallafat al quluub. (e) Slaves who can buy their freedom using the zakat money. (f) The indebted, al ghamirun. (g) Those struggling in the way of Allah, fi sabil llaahi. (h) Travelers who need money, ibn al sabiil. Zakat results in growth and increase of wealth. It cleanses wealth. It is a pillar of Islam (KS 257). Withholding zakat is a great sin (KS 258).


Zakat al fitr is obligatory (MB 766, BG 505) and must be paid before salat eid al fitr (MB 767, BG 567). Zakat al fitr  (KS 202) is a fixed amount paid on behalf of each member of the family at the end of the fasting month of Ramadhan. It plays a very important social and psychological function. The less priviledged are assured that they can take part in the festivities at the end of the fasting month.


Voluntary alms, sadaqat al tatawu'u, is encouraged. It is recommended all the time. There is special merit in sadaqat in Ramadhan. Sadaqat can be given to the righteous, the relatives. Sadaqat is given from the best of wealth. Sadaqat should not be given from wealth of doubtful source. Sadaqat, unlike zakat, can be given to the non-Muslim. Reminding the recipient of sadaqat, al mann, is unlawful. Sadaqat al tatawu’u is best given in secrecy (BG 508). Priority in sadaqat are the relatives (BG 512, BG 513, BG 515). Sadaqat is not given to the rich or the able-bodied (BG 521).


REGULATIONS & ETIQUETTE, ahkam & adab al zakat

Zakat can be paid in kind (MB 732) or as cash. The computation of zakat on live-stock and agricultural produce is made in kind and then converted into cash if need be. Normally zakat is paid at the end of the zakatable year. It however can be paid in advance before it is due (BG 493). Zakat arrears are also due and payable. Zakat on joint property is computed on the total property; it is illegal to divide up the property and allocating portions less than the nisaab to each partner in order to avoid payment (MB733 and MB 734). The Qur'an and sunnat have listed the categories of zakat recipients. Zakat is preferably given to relatives (MB 740 and MB 747) if they are among the categories of zakat beneficiaries. Zakat can also be given to a wife (MB 744) provided no deception to avoid payment of zakat or nafaqat is involved. Zakat can be given to orphans (MB 745). It is illegal to buy back any article given as zakat to the poor (MB 757).



Zakat is levied on property kept in possession for 1 year (BG 489). Quorum, nisaab, is a minimum zakatable wealth specified for gold, silver, dates, camels etc (BG 494). The law has specified the quorum for zakat on buried treasures (BG 503, BG 504), zakat on gold ornaments worn by women (BG 498, BG 500),  and zakat on crops. Zakat is levied only on specified and not all crops (BG 496). The zakat rate is different for naturally and artificially irrigated crops (BG 495). Zakat on crops is due at the time of harvest. The zakat rate for money is 1 in 40 or 2.5% (BG 489). The quorum is 100 dirhams kept for 1 year (BG 489). No zakat is levied on a horse (BG 487) or working cattle (BG 490).




The Qur'an has mentioned the following eight categories of zakat recipients (p 532 9:60):



Zakat administrators, ‘aamiluuna ‘alaiha

New/potential Muslims , muallafat al quluub

Slaves in bondage who need funds to be buy their freedom


The heavily indebted

Those struggling in the way of Allah, sabilullah



The individual can compute and give zakat directly to the poor or any of the categories of legal recipients. Zakat can also be given to charitable organizations. A non-governmental community organization may collect and distribute zakat. The government could collect and distribute zakat



Hajj is obligatory (MB 769). The obligation is only one hajj in a life-time. Any extra hajj after that is sunnat (BG 589). Hajj is obligatory only on those who have the physical ability to travel to Makka and come back, istitaat al sabiil  (p 315 3:97). The obligation of hajj, unlike umrah, is confined to a specific period in the year (p 314 2:158; p 315 22:28). Hajj is a response to the call of Allah (p. 315 22:27-30). Hajj is obligatory only on adult sane Muslims who are financially and physically capable (p. 315 3:97). Factors considered in judging financial ability are: having enough funds to pay the expenses of travelling, food, and accomodation while leaving enough funds to maintain the family for the duration of the pilgrimage. A debtor is not obliged to perform hajj. Among factors considered in judging physical ability are: security of the road, health, a mahram for a woman, or two trusted women travelling together. There are obligations that take precedence over hajj like jihad, caring for parents and the family. The obligation is only one pilgrimage in a life-time. Any additional ones are nafilat. Proxy hajj can be performed on behalf of another person. The one performing proxy hajj must have discharged his hajj obligation before. The conditions of obligation, shuruut al taklif, that the intending pilgrim must fulfil are: being a Muslim, adult (post puberty or aged 15 years and above), sane, healthy, and has the provisions for the journey. Hajj of boys (MB 897, BG 583) is valid but has to be repeated on attainment of adulthood (BG 586). The following additional conditions have also to be observed: safety of the road, enough support for family until return, and a non-marriageable male relative, mahram,  as companion for a woman (BG 587). Hajj can be performed on behalf of a dead person (MB 896, BG 585) or an old person (BG 584). It is required that a person performs his or her own obligatory hajj before perfoming it for someone else (BG 588).



Air-borne infections are likely because of the crowding of so many peope in a confined space. Spitting on the street should be discouraged. Proper personal hygiene is necessary. Food bought from street vendore may not be hygienic. Close contact with people with infections should be limited. During diarrhoea or vomiting extra efforts should be made to take fluids to replace the losses. Food should be limited to carbohydrates and vegetables while avoiding proteins. Fire could arise from cooking or other activities. It can spread quickly and reach many people because of crowded living in tents. Air, water, and soil pollution are likely environmental hazzrds. Heat stroke is a common condition among pilgrims. The temperatures in the deserts of Hejaz can rise to be very high. Pilgrims who are over-exposed to heat can develop heat stroke. Physical exhaustion affects pilgrims who come from far away and follow a heavy schedule in Hejaz. Travel is part of punishment, al safar qit'at min al adhaab MB 878. It is physically and psychologically exhausting. The many rites of hajj that have to be performed in a short period of time can be very exhausting. Other hazards are: stampedes, road traffic injuries, injury at jamaraat, and being lost:



Patients on regular medical treatment should bring their medicine with them and continue taking it regularly. The heat of Hejaz may exercabate skin diseases; pilgrims should carry necessary medication with them. Moisturuzers should be used to treat dry skin. Regular exercise before going for hajj will put the body in a good physical condition to withstand the rigors of hajj. Suitable foor wear should be used to give confort to the feet while not breaking the laws of ihraam. A skin cream can be used to protect against severe sunlight.


REGULATIONS & ETIQUETTE OF HAJJ, ahkaam wa adab al hajj

Conditions of hajj, shurrut al hajj, are ritual bathing, ghusl, If there is no enough water, ablution, wudhu, is sufficient. Putting on clean garmets as specified by the Law. The following hygieneic measures are required before ihram: cleaniliness; shaving or trimming hair including pubic hair, axillary hair, and the moustache; cutting nails; washing the whole body, ghusl (BG 595). All old clothes are removed. The men wear only the rida and izaar. Women can wear their ordinary sewn clothes but can not veil their face. The body can be perfumed but not the clothes. The following actions are forbidden for the muhrim: marriage contract, 'aqd al nikaah (BG 598);  sexual intercoutse, jimau; cutting nails, taqliim al adhfaar;  shaving hair, izaalat al sha’ar, except for medical purposes like lice which requires kaffarrat (BG 603), and using perfume, al tatayub (BG 597). The time of hajj must be observed. Hajj can only be undertaken in the holy months, al ash hur al haraam, that are recognized, ashhur ma'alumaat (MB 790). Hajj outside the prescribed period is not recognized. Hajj can be performed in three variants: tamattu, ifrad, and iqraan (MB 791, MB 792, MB 793, MB 794, MB 795, MB 796, MB 797). Ifraad is when all the rites of hajj are completed before starting the rites of umrah. Tamatu'u is when the rites of umrah are completed before starting the rites of hajj. Iqraan is when hajj and umrah are performed simultaneously. For those choosing tamatu'u and iqraan there is a fidyat of slaughtering a goat or fasting 10 days, 3 in Makka and 7 after return to the home country. The Law specified dress for hajj, libaas al ihraam (MB 784 and MB 780). Sewn clothes, turbans, shirts, shoes, and dyed clothes are forbidden for men (BG 596). There are no restrictions on the dress of women. Mawaqiit are sites outside the holy sanctuary of Makka at which the approaching pilgrim makes the intention to perform hajj (BG 590-591). The intention for umrat must be before reaching Makka. If one is already in Makka and desires to perform umrat, he has to go to masjid al tan'iim and make the intention from there, Umrat al taniim (MB 869).

PILLARS (ARKAN AL HAJJ): The pillars of hajj and umrah are: ihram; cicumbulation, tawaaf; trot between safa and marwa, sa'ay; shaving the hair, al halaq. Hajj has the additional pillars of: standing in Arafat, stoning the jamaraat, sleeping at Muzdalifat, sleeping at Mina, and the farewell circumbulation. Leaving out any pillar is expiated by slaughtering or fasting.



When a person enters the state of ihram, he or she is now called a muhrim. The following are prohibited for a muhrim: sewn garments, using  perfume, removing nails or hair, sexual intercourse or foreplay, and hunting. Violation of any of these requires kaffarat which is slaughtering, feeding the poor, or fasting for three days. Any marriage transaction while in a state of ihram is invalid.



The pilgrim prays 2 rakaats before entering the haram. Talbiat is continued all the time except when making tawaf or the trot between safa and marwa. Circumbulation of the kaaba is 7 times with 2 rakaats being offerred at the end. The trot between safa and marwa is 7 times starting at safa.



On the morning of 8th of dhul al hijja the pilgrims move to Mina. They pray dhuhr, asr, maghrib, and isha at Mina. They sleep at Mina and pray fajr. After fajr they move to Arafat where they spend the day. After maghrib they start moving from Arafat to Muzdalifat where they spend the night. They wake up and pray fajr after which they pick pebbles that they will throw at the jamaraat in Mina. They them move to Mina where they stone the jamaraat and slaughter. They then cut a bit of hair from both men and women signifying partial release from ihram.



From Mina they then move to Makka where they perform tawaf al ifadhat and are then completely released from ihram. They perform the farewell circumbulation, tawaaf al widai, before leaving Makka. A menstruating woman may leave Makka without performing the farewell circumbulation.



It is recommended to visit the Prophet's mosque in Madina.



In a long hadith by Muslim  (BG 607) the acts of hajj were listed as: talbiyat, tawaaf, salat in maqaam Ibrahim, trotting between safa and marwa, travel to muna, standing at Arafat, travel to and staying at Muzdalifat, stoning, slaughter, and return to Makka. The formular for talbiyat is well known. The voice may or may not be raised in talbiyat (BG 619). Circumbulation of the kaaba, tawaaf, is done 7 times. Trotting or jogging, raml,is recommended (MB 813, 814, 811). Tawaaf al quduum (MB 817-818). Tawaaf al wida (MB 858 and MB 859). Conversation is allowed in tawaaf (MB 819). Standing in Arafat, wuquuf bi arafat (MB 831), for a whole day. Stoning the devil, ramy al jimaar (MB 854, 855) involves ritual throwing of 7 pebbles at each of the three jamaraat. Kissing and touching the black stone (MB 812, and MB 816) is recommended if possible. The trot between safa and marwa, sa'ay, is an obligation (MB 825)



Special rulings were made to ease the performance of hajj for women in their menstruation. Menstruating woman can do everything except tawaaf (MB 827). Mesntruating woman can leave Makka after tawaaf al ifaadhat (MB 860). At the end of hajj, women need not shave hair, clipping is sufficient (BG 634). Hormones can be used by women to delay their menstruation in order to avoid interference with hajj rites.



There are several restrictions on the pilgrim while in the state of ihraam. These are lessened and finally lifted towards the end of the pilgrimage. After throwing the pebbles, everything is permitted to the pilgrim except sex (BG 633). Essential things like medical treatment are not restricted for example cupping was allowed in hajj (MB 892, BG 602)



Shaving hair is forbidden unless there is a medical indication (p 315 2:196-199). Violence is prohibited. Because of the sanctity of Makka, no fighting is allowed in the holy sanctuary. Hunting of wild game is forbidden (  ). Cutting thorns is forbidden (    ). Dangerous animals can be killed in hajj (MB 889). The laws of homicide however apply (BG 604)



Extreme heat could make the performance of outdoor rites difficult. War & Insecurity in Hejaz or on the way could interfere with hajj. If a pilgrim can not be assured of safety of person and property, he can discontinue the hajj wherever he is and return another year (p 315 2:196-199). Disease epidemics in Hejaz or on the way are a reason for delaying hajj and taking other precautionary public health measures.


PILGRIMAGE OF THE SICK, hajj al mariidh

The physically disabled can circumbulate the kaaba riding on a vehicle or being carried by another person. The weak may be hurt by the crowds at the Kaaba, Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifat and Jamaraat. The weak can leave Muzdalifat earlier to avoid the crowds (BG 620-621). In case of a fracture, hajj is stopped and is repeated the next year (BG 647).

Patients with diabetes need to take extra precautions. Care should be taken by diabetics when drinking not to take drinks that have a lot of sugar that will disturb diabetic control. The patient should work closely with the physician. Control of diabetes should be achieved and stabilized at least 6 months before travelling for hajj. Forward planning is necessary to make sure that the same type of dietary regime will be available during hajj so that there are no sudden dietary changes that can spin diabetes out of control. Care of the feet is very important because of the high possibility of injury to the feet while wearing only sandals. This includes care of the nails that must be trimmed. The feet must be kept feet moist because dryness could lead to cracking that does not heal easily in a diabetic. Care is taken while walking not to have feet trampled on and injured by other pilgrims.


For patients of hypertension, blood pressure control and stabilization must be achieved at least 3 months before departure. Use of anti-diuretics must anticipate a hotter climate in Saudi Arabia with more fluid losses by perspiration. For patients with gout, dietary guidelines must be followed closely and attention must be given to proper hydration.



Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. June 2001