0106-PHYSICAL ACTS OF WORSHIP, (AHKAAM AL IBADAT) (PART II)
Lecture for Year 3 medical students on June 16 & June 30, 2001
by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.
Conditions of obligation: Three conditions are considered in fasting:
age, mental condition, and physical condition. Obligation to fast the month of Ramadhan is on those who have reached puberty
or the age of 15. Fasting of children (MB 954) is for training but is not obligatory. The insane and those with physical conditions
that can be aggravated by fasting are exempted. The sick are allowed to make up for lost days later (p. 718 2;183-185). Excuse
from fasting may be or may not be accompanied by kaffaarat. Excuse from saum with no kaffarat occurs in the following conditions excuse from fasting and do not have to make it up: Old age, shiekh kabiir; weakness, 'ajz; and illness with no hope of cure, maradh muzmin. In these cases no kaffaarat is paid. Excuse from saum with kaffarat occurs in the following conditions that permit breaking the fast but with make-up
later with payment of kaffaarat: travel, safar; illness with recovery expected;mistakes in saum such as eating or drinking forgetfully?.
Non-obligatory fasting, siyaam
al tatawu'u:The following are permitted non-obligatory fasting: fasting
Mondays and Thursdays (BG 552, KS 327), 9th and 10th of Muharram, fasting 6 days in the month of shawal
(BG 553, KS 327), fasting 3 days in every lunar month: 13th, 14th, and 15th (KS 327, BG 556).
…of the month of Sha'abaan (BG 563), fasting the day of Arafat for the pilgrim, 9th of Dhil al Hajj (KS 327,
BG 566), and fasting the sanctified months, ashhur al hurum. The woman can fast non-obligatory fasts only with consent
of her husband (BG 557). Decisions of non-obligatory fasting should consider three types of rights: rights of the self,haqq al nafs; rights of the family, haqq al ahl (MB 962), and rights of the body, haqq
al jasad (MB 963). A balance is needed among these rights. A balance must also be established between fulfilling these
rights and ibadat.
The fasting of Nuh was all his life except the days of eid (KS 328). The fasting of Daud was fasting on alternate
days (KS 330)
Prohibited fasting: The following types of fasting are forbidden:
fasting of the 2 days of eid al fitr and eid
al adh-ha (BG 558, KS 327), fasting during ayaam al tashriik (BG 559, BG 560),
singling out Friday as a day of fasting (BG 561, 562), fasting in the second half of the month of sha’abaan, continous
fasting, wisaal (KS 330), life-time fasting, saum al dahar (KS 328), fasting a doubtful day, fasting in the second half of
sha'abaan, and purposely planning to fast on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday
Fasting 3 days during hajj and 7 after return to home country
Fasting 60 days for sexual intercourse in Ramadhan
REGULATIONS & ETIQUETTE, ahkam & adab al saum
OBLIGATION OF FASTING
Fasting has its own etiquette (MB #925). Fasting of Ramadhan is obligatory and is one of the pillars of Islam (KS
325). Fasting is obligatory for adult, sane, and healthy Muslims. The wife must get her husband's permission for non-obligatory
fasting. Such permission is not needed for the fasting of Ramadhan (KS 333). Children are told to fast from the age of 7 years.
If a person deliberately breaks the Ramadhan fast with no valid excuse he must fast two consecutive months (KS 332) for each
day. Excessive hunger or thirst that are feared to harm health are a valid excuse to break the fast and make up later. If
a person eats or drinks in forgetfulness then all they have to do is to complete the day and the day is considered valid (KS
333). A non-obligatory fast can be broken at any time but must be redone, qadha (KS 333). A guest does not fast non-obligatory
fasts except with the permission of the host (KS 330). Fasting takes place in the month of Ramadhan. It is part of the new
civilisation ushered in by Islam that Muslims have to determine accurately the start and end of Ramadhan and have to watch
the calendar carefully. The start and end of the Ramadhan is determined by the sight of the crescent (KS 326). Testimony of
one reliable witness is sufficient to establish the sight of the crescent. It is forbidden to fast a day of doubt, siyam
yawm al shakk. Non-obligatory fasting is forbidden in the second half of the month of sha'abaan to avoid mix-up with the
month of Ramadhan (KS 326, 327). The niyyat for non-obligatory fasting must be made before .
Pillars of fasting: Fasting has two main pillars, arkaan al saum: intention, niyyat al saum and abstinence from food
or drink, imsaak 'an al ta'aami wa al sharaabi.
The merits of fasting, fadhl al
siyaam, are many and varied. The spiritual merits are expiation of sins. The medical merits are appetite and weight
control. The social merits arise from the self control and self-discipline. The fasting person is enjoined to desist from
quarelling, loud talk, cruel acts, forged talk. Fasting also helps in sexual self control.
Etiquette of fasting: The following are etiquettes of fasting,adaab al siyam: Intention of fasting, niyyat al siyaam, before fajr (BG 532); delayingsuhuur such that there is a very short time remaining before fajr (MB 935); hastening breakfast (MB 952, BG 534, BG
535),breaking the fast with dates and water (BG 536), avoiding overeating at
breakfast or suhuur, and avoiding falsehood or foolishness during fasting (BG 538).
Start and end of fasting: Start and end of the month of fasting
is based on seeing the crescent, al saum wa al iftaar bi ru'uyat al hilaal (MB 928-929). In cloudy skies, completion of Ramadhan
is by counting 30 days from the start of the fasting (BG 527). It is prohibited to fast 1 or 2 days before Ranadhan (MB 932,
BG 527). It is prohibited to fast a doubtful day (BG 528).
Permitted acts of fasting: The following are permitted during the
day: using the tooth-pick, siwaak; washing or bathing in water with care being
taken not to swallow any water; applying kuhl (BG 543); kissing a spouse if there is no fear of sexual temptation; injection
of medication, venupuncture or cupping (MB 92, BG 540, BG 542), washing or rinsing inside the mouth and nostrils. Swallowing
saliva needs to be clarified. Since salivary glands continually produce saliva during fasting and other times, it would accumulate
in the mouth unless swallowed. There is therefore continous unconscious swallowing of saliva in small quantities. If this
is forbidden any person fasting will be required to spit saliva on a continuous basis that will be a source of inconvenience.
Recommended acts of fasting, sunan
al siyaam, MANDUUBAAT AL SAUM: Salaat al tarawiih in a community mosque
is highly recommended. There is highmerit of standing up in prayer during Ramadhan,
fadhl qiyaam ramadhan (MB 972). There is high merit in itikaaf in the last
10 days of Ramadhan (MB 978). Itikaaf (2:187)can be only during the night (MB 980). A person in itikaaf can enter the home for a need (MB 979). Normal marital relations are not allowed during itikaaf (p. 719
2:187). Dua at break-fast (KS 331). Suhuur: There is blessing , barakat, in suhuur (KS 331). delaying suhuur, ta'akhiir
al suhuur (KS 331). Suhuur is not compulsory (MB 936) but is highly recommended.
Hastening iftar, ta'ajiil al iftar (KS 330). Generosity, al juud. Joining kindred relations, silat al rahm.
Recitation of the Qur'an, tilawat al Qur'an. Serving breakfast for those fasting. Feeding the fasting person: The
reward of the person giving breakfast is equivalent to that of one who fasts, al taim ka al saim (KS 334). Major ablution
before salat al fajr. Avoiding back-biting, ghaibat, telling lies, kadhb, and obscenities, fahsh.
Delaying unnecessary medical treatment
Offensive acts of fasting, makruhaat
al siyaam: It is offensive to perform continuous day and night fasting,
wisaal (MB 955, MB 956, BG 537). Fasting every day for life, siyam al dahr, is discouraged. Kissing is offensive for young couples or those who can not control themselves
from sexual arousal (BG 539).
Prohibitions of fasting, muharramaat
al siyaam: Sexual intercourse
is forbidden in the day but allowed at night (p. 718 2:187, MB 933). Sexual intercourse during the day leads to severe punishment:
fasting 2 consecutive months or feeding 60 poor (MB 941, BG 549). Eating and drinking
are forbidden during the day but are allowed at night (p. 718 2:187, MB 934). Eating and drinking in forgetfulness (MB 940)
or eating before sunset by mistake (MB 953) do not invalidate fasting; the day is completed with no need to repeat.
Nullification of fasting, mubtilaat
al siyaam: The following abrogate
fasting and require make-up, qadha: deliberate eating and drinking, akl 'amdan; Use of snuff or tobacco in the nose, Putting water in the ear until it reaches the ear-drum, Excessive
madhmadhat, Excessive istinshaaq, Swallowing saliva and phlegm is a matter of controversy among the scholars,
Insanity or loss of consciousness even if temporary, Any penetration by any object or material into the body cavity. Intra-muscular
and intra-venous injections are excepted; deliberate sexual intercourse, jimaa'u. Sexual
intercourse: Vaginal coitus or any other sexual act that leads to orgasm nullifies the fasting. Sexual intercourse, al jimau, in Ramadhan is a serious offense with a punitive punishment (KS 332). The punishment imposed on the
man and not the woman is to fast 60 consecutive days for each day nullified or feeding 60 poor people, masakin. Non-coital relations with the wife are allowed but with strict limitations that depend on the age (KS
332). menstruation, haidh; post-natal bleeding, nifaas; masturbation, istimnaan; ?eating or sexual intercourse by mistaking
time to be after maghrib. Spontaneous vomiting does not require atonement but induced vomiting does (BG 545). Hormonal preparations
should not be used to delay menstruation in order to avoid breaking the fasting of Ramadhan.
ACTIVITIES THAT DO NOT NULLIFY THE FASTING: Wet sexual dream (KS 333). Cupping, hijaam (KS 333). We have
to consider the patient, al mahjuum, and the cupper, al haajim, separately. Madhmadhat
Istinshaaq. Tepid sponging for a fever patient, tabarrud (KS 333)
Measures to prevent physiological harm: The prophet (PBUH) taught
measures to ensure that fasting does not cause physiologic damage. Fasting continuosly from day to day, wisaal, was
forbidden (KS330: Bukhari K30 B20, Bukhari K20 B48-50, Bukhari K96 B5,Muslim
K13 H55-61, Abu Daud K14 B25, Tirmidhi K6 B62, Darimi K4 B14, Muwatta K18 H38-39, Muslim #2426, 2427, 2429, 2430, 2433, 2434,
2435). Early breakfast was recommended (KS330 Bukhari K30 B45, Muslim K13 H47-51, Abu Daud K14 B21, Tirmidhi K6 B13, Nisae
K22 B23, Ibn Majah K7 B24, Darimi K4 B11, Muwatta K18 H6-8). Travelers were exempted from fasting (KS330-331 Bukhari K30 B33-38,
Bukhari K30 B43-45, Bukhari K56 B71 &134,Bukhari K64 B47, Muslim K130 H52-54,
Muslim K130 H88-109, Abu Daud K14 B20 & 43-45, Tirmidhi K22 B46-62 & 74, Ibn Majah K7 B10-12, Darimi K4 B15-16, Muwatta
K18 H22-26, Muslim # 2467, 2468, 2470, 2471, 2472, 2474, 2475, 2476, 2477, 2479, 2480, 2481, 2482, 2483. Delaying suhuur was
recommended (KS 331 Hakim p. 147). A menstruating woman is temporarily exempted from fasting but she has to replace the days
missed (). Women in post-natal bleeding are exempted from fasting
(). Exemption from fasting is also given to the pregnant woman, the breast-feeding
woman, the elderly, and the sick (KS334: BukhariK65 surat 2 B25, Tirmidhi K6
B21, Nisae K22 B51 & B62 & B64, Ibn Majah K7 B21, Muwatta K18 H25).
Medical guidelines for fasting: The aim should be maintaining normal
body weight or actually reducing it if overweight. Over-eating at iftaar and suhuur should be avoided. Over-eating
will cause indigestion. The diet should contain sufficient fiber to prevent constipation. Fiber and slowly digested foods
with a long stomach transit times are preferred. Enough water should be taken at night both for preventing dehydration and
preventing constipation. Adequate fluid and salt intake prevents lethargy in the afternoon caused by low blood pressure. Hunger
is a cause of headache especially later in the day. Intake of adequate calcium, magnesium, and pottassium will prevent muscle
crumps. Hot places should be avoided. Attempts should be made to keep cool. Inadequate sleep is a cause of headaches. In non-diabetics
hypoglycemia may be due to insulin overproduction on intake of refined sugar. In diabetics it may arise due to insulin injections
with inadequate dietary intake. Peptic ulcers are aggravated by raised acid
levels. Kidney stones may be due to low fluid intake. Joint pains may be due to excess solutes.
FASTING IN DIFFICULT PHYSICAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Travel: The prophet fasted on a journey (MB 943) and also broke the fast on another journey (BG 546). A Muslim
may or may not fast on a journey (MB 944, MB 945, MB 946, MB 947, and MB 948). It is however preferable to take the exemption
and break the fast during a jouney.
Difficult weather: Fasting in conditions of extreme heat leads to dehydration. Care should be taken to take enough
fluids at suhuur and not to expose oneself to extreme environmental temperatures. In very cold areas, the metabolic rate is
raised to be able to generate sufficient heat for maintaining body temperature. In such conditions extra care should be taken
to consume enough food and to cover oneself properly to minimize heat loss. Regions of the world near the two poles may have
extremely long days in summer and very short ones in winter. It is recommended that the times of suhuur and iftaar
of the nearest temperate region should be followed rather than following local sun-rise and sunset.
FASTING OF THE SICK, saum al maridh and FASTING OF THE OLD, saum al kabiir. The following are allowed to break the fast and pay kaffarat: The elderly, al shaikh (KS 334), the terminally ill patient, the pregnant woman, al hublah (KS 334) if
fasting is a risk to the health of the fetus and not the mother, and the Breast-feeding
woman or nursing woman, al murdhi' (KS 334) if fasting is a risk to the health
of the baby. Breast-feeding woman or nursing woman, al murdhi' (KS 334) if fasting is a risk to the health of the mother.
Menstruating woman, al haidhah
(KS 334): The exemption is obligatory. Any fasting by a mestruating woman in invalid. Woman
in post-partum bleeding, nifaas (). The exemption is obligatory.
Any fasting undertaken in the post-partum period is invalid. The very sick with chronic disease and the elderly do not fast
but feed the poor instead (BG 548). The heirs can perform make-up fasting, qadha al
saum, for days missed by a deceased disabled by disease in terminal illness (MB 948, MB 950, BG 551).
PERMISSION TO BREAK THE FAST WITHOUT KAFFAARAT:
The following are allowed to break the fast but must make up later. The make-up must be before the next Ramadhan.
If the make-up is delayed until the next Ramadhan comes, kaffarat becomes due by feeding the poor. The sick, al maridh (KS 328, KS 334). The Traveller, al musafir(KS 331). The fast of a traveller who chooses not to take
the exemption is valid. The Pregnant woman, al hublah (KS 334) if the fasting is a possible risk to the mother's health. The Breast-feeding woman or nursing woman, al murdhi' (KS 334) if fasting
is a risk to the health of the mother. The menstruating woman, al haidhah (KS 334): The exemption is obligatory. Any fasting by a mestruating woman in invalid. The Woman in post-partum bleeding, nifaas (). The exemption is
obligatory. Any fasting undertaken in the post-partum period is invalid.
MEDICATION IN FASTING
The general rule is that any substance that enters the body through any of its openings, manfadh, nullifies fasting.
The openings are the two ends of the alimentary canal, the mouth and the anus. All drugs that are applied externally on the
skin do not nullify fating. Use of eye drops does not nullify fasting. Nose drops may nullify fasting because they could drop
into the pharynx and be swallowed. Inhalants also nullify fasting. Sub-cutaneous, intra-muscular, and intra-venous injections
do not nullify fasting. However nourishing injections nullify the purpose of fasting. Drugs of whatever form taken orally
or anally nullify fasting. Sub-lingual pills are allowed. The use of siwaak is allowed. Toothpaste can be used provided care
is taken not to swallow any of it. The mouth can be rinsed with pure water with care being taken to avoid swallowing.
MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Breaking routines: Fasting breaks the normal routines of life that revolve around meals. It creates a different
psychological milieu that liberates the mind from the routines of life and gives it an opportunity to reflect on the bigger
issues of the creator, the good and the bad.
Empowerment: A fasting person is able to control the appetite for
food and to withstand hunger for a whole day. This is an exercise in self-control and self-discipline that empowers the person.
This empowerment can be transferred to other life activities. Fasting is a means of instilling sexual self-control, al saum li man khaafa al 'uzuubat (MB 927).
Zakat al maal is obligatory (p. 531 2:43, 2:83, 2:110, 4:77, 9:5,
9:11, 22:78, 24:56, 33:33, 58:13, 70:24-25, 73:20, 98:5, MB 702, BG 483). The obligation is when a person has held a minimum
taxable amount, nisaab, for 1 year, hawl. The obligation is related to the property and not the person. Males
or females, adults or children are all obliged to pay zakat. For example the wealth of a minor or an insane is zakatable although
they are both exempt from other legal obligations. The orphan's wealth must be invested otherwise it will be exhausted by
annual zakat payments (BG 491). The legal guardian of a child or an insane person is obliged to pay zakat from their respective
wealth. Zakat is no obligatory for non-Muslims. Debts do not remove the obligation of zakat. Zakat can be paid in advance.
Zakatable property includes metals, paper money, trade goods, crops, and livestock. The beneficiaries: The recipients of zakat
al maal were explained in the Qur'an () and the sunnat (KS 261).
The 8 categories of recipients are: (a) The poor, al faqir, defined as one who does not have enough wealth to live
on, can not work or can not find work. (b) The destitute, maskin, is one who is short of money. (c) Zakat workers,
al amilun alaiha (d) Those whose hearts are being reconciles, muallafat al quluub. (e) Slaves who can buy their
freedom using the zakat money. (f) The indebted, al ghamirun. (g) Those struggling in the way of Allah, fi sabil
llaahi. (h) Travelers who need money, ibn al sabiil. Zakat results in growth and increase of wealth. It cleanses
wealth. It is a pillar of Islam (KS 257). Withholding zakat is a great sin (KS 258).
Zakat al fitr is obligatory (MB 766, BG 505) and must be paid before salat eid al fitr (MB 767, BG 567). Zakat al fitr(KS 202) is a fixed amount paid on behalf of each member
of the family at the end of the fasting month of Ramadhan. It plays a very important social and psychological function. The
less priviledged are assured that they can take part in the festivities at the end of the fasting month.
Voluntary alms, sadaqat al tatawu'u, is encouraged. It is recommended
all the time. There is special merit in sadaqat in Ramadhan. Sadaqat can be given to the righteous, the relatives. Sadaqat
is given from the best of wealth. Sadaqat should not be given from wealth of doubtful source. Sadaqat, unlike zakat, can be
given to the non-Muslim. Reminding the recipient of sadaqat, al mann, is unlawful. Sadaqat
al tatawu’u is best given in secrecy (BG 508). Priority in sadaqat are the relatives (BG 512, BG 513, BG 515).
Sadaqat is not given to the rich or the able-bodied (BG 521).
REGULATIONS & ETIQUETTE, ahkam & adab al zakat
Zakat can be paid in kind (MB 732) or as cash. The computation of zakat on live-stock and agricultural produce
is made in kind and then converted into cash if need be. Normally zakat is paid at the end of the zakatable year. It however
can be paid in advance before it is due (BG 493). Zakat arrears are also due and payable. Zakat on joint property is computed
on the total property; it is illegal to divide up the property and allocating portions less than the nisaab to each partner
in order to avoid payment (MB733 and MB 734). The Qur'an and sunnat have listed the categories of zakat recipients. Zakat
is preferably given to relatives (MB 740 and MB 747) if they are among the categories of zakat beneficiaries. Zakat can also
be given to a wife (MB 744) provided no deception to avoid payment of zakat or nafaqat is involved. Zakat can be given to
orphans (MB 745). It is illegal to buy back any article given as zakat to the poor (MB 757).
ZAKATABLE WEALTH, nisaab
Zakat is levied on property kept in possession for 1 year (BG 489). Quorum, nisaab,
is a minimum zakatable wealth specified for gold, silver, dates, camels etc (BG 494). The law has specified the quorum for
zakat on buried treasures (BG 503, BG 504), zakat on gold ornaments worn by women (BG 498, BG 500),and zakat on crops. Zakat is levied only on specified and not all crops (BG 496). The zakat rate is different
for naturally and artificially irrigated crops (BG 495). Zakat on crops is due at the time of harvest. The zakat rate for
money is 1 in 40 or 2.5% (BG 489). The quorum is 100 dirhams kept for 1 year (BG 489). No zakat is levied on a horse (BG 487)
or working cattle (BG 490).
BENEFICIARIES OF ZAKAT
The Qur'an has mentioned the following eight categories of zakat recipients (p 532 9:60):
Zakat administrators, ‘aamiluuna ‘alaiha
New/potential Muslims , muallafat al quluub
Slaves in bondage who need funds to be buy their freedom
The heavily indebted
Those struggling in the way of Allah, sabilullah
ADMINISTRATION OF ZAKAT COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION
The individual can compute and give zakat directly to the poor or any of the categories of legal recipients. Zakat
can also be given to charitable organizations. A non-governmental community organization may collect and distribute zakat.
The government could collect and distribute zakat
Hajj is obligatory (MB 769). The obligation is only one hajj in a life-time. Any extra hajj after that is sunnat
(BG 589). Hajj is obligatory only on those who have the physical ability to travel to Makka and come back, istitaat al sabiil(p 315 3:97). The obligation of hajj, unlike umrah,
is confined to a specific period in the year (p 314 2:158; p 315 ). Hajj is
a response to the call of Allah (p. 315 22:27-30). Hajj is obligatory only on adult
sane Muslims who are financially and physically capable (p. 315 3:97). Factors considered in judging financial ability are:
having enough funds to pay the expenses of travelling, food, and accomodation while leaving enough funds to maintain the family
for the duration of the pilgrimage. A debtor is not obliged to perform hajj. Among factors considered in judging physical
ability are: security of the road, health, a mahram for a woman, or two trusted women travelling together. There are obligations
that take precedence over hajj like jihad, caring for parents and the family. The obligation is only one pilgrimage in a life-time.
Any additional ones are nafilat. Proxy hajj can be performed on behalf of another person. The one performing proxy hajj must
have discharged his hajj obligation before. The conditions of obligation, shuruut al
taklif, that theintending
pilgrim must fulfil are: being a Muslim, adult (post puberty or aged 15 years and above), sane, healthy, and has the provisions
for the journey. Hajj of boys (MB 897, BG 583) is valid but has to be repeated on attainment of adulthood (BG 586). The following
additional conditions have also to be observed: safety of the road, enough support for family until return, and a non-marriageable
male relative, mahram,as companion
for a woman (BG 587). Hajj can be performed on behalf of a dead person (MB 896, BG 585) or an old person (BG 584). It is required
that a person performs his or her own obligatory hajj before perfoming it for someone else (BG 588).
PUBLIC HEALTH & SAFETY
Air-borne infections are likely because of the crowding of so many
peope in a confined space. Spitting on the street should be discouraged. Proper personal hygiene is necessary. Food bought
from street vendore may not be hygienic. Close contact with people with infections should be limited. During diarrhoea or
vomiting extra efforts should be made to take fluids to replace the losses. Food should be limited to carbohydrates and vegetables
while avoiding proteins. Fire could arise from cooking or other activities. It can spread quickly and reach many people because
of crowded living in tents. Air, water, and soil pollution are likely environmental hazzrds. Heat stroke is a common condition
among pilgrims. The temperatures in the deserts of Hejaz can rise to be very high. Pilgrims
who are over-exposed to heat can develop heat stroke. Physical exhaustion
affects pilgrims who come from far away and follow a heavy schedule in Hejaz. Travel is part of punishment,
al safar qit'at min al adhaab MB 878. It is physically and psychologically exhausting. The many rites of hajj that have to
be performed in a short period of time can be very exhausting. Other hazards are: stampedes, road traffic injuries, injury
at jamaraat, and being lost:
CARE FOR HEALTH
Patients on regular medical treatment should bring their medicine with them and continue taking it regularly. The
heat of Hejaz may exercabate skin diseases; pilgrims should carry necessary medication with them. Moisturuzers
should be used to treat dry skin. Regular exercise before going for hajj will put the body in a good physical condition to
withstand the rigors of hajj. Suitable foor wear should be used to give confort to the feet while not breaking the laws of
ihraam. A skin cream can be used to protect against severe sunlight.
REGULATIONS & ETIQUETTE OF HAJJ, ahkaam wa adab al hajj
Conditions of hajj, shurrut al hajj, are ritual bathing, ghusl,
If there is no enough water, ablution, wudhu, is sufficient. Putting on clean garmets as specified by the Law. The following
hygieneic measures are required before ihram: cleaniliness; shaving or trimming hair including pubic hair, axillary hair,
and the moustache; cutting nails; washing the whole body, ghusl (BG 595). All old
clothes are removed. The men wear only the rida and izaar. Women can wear their ordinary sewn clothes but can not veil their
face. The body can be perfumed but not the clothes. The following actions are forbidden for the muhrim: marriage contract,
'aqd al nikaah (BG 598);sexual intercoutse,
jimau; cutting nails, taqliim al adhfaar;
shaving hair, izaalat al sha’ar,
except for medical purposes like lice which requires kaffarrat (BG 603), and using perfume, al tatayub (BG 597). The time of hajj must be observed. Hajj can only be undertaken in the holy months, al ash hur al haraam, that are recognized, ashhur ma'alumaat (MB 790).
Hajj outside the prescribed period is not recognized. Hajj can be performed in three variants: tamattu, ifrad, and iqraan
(MB 791, MB 792, MB 793, MB 794, MB 795, MB 796, MB 797). Ifraad is when all the rites of hajj are completed before starting
the rites of umrah. Tamatu'u is when the rites of umrah are completed before starting the rites of hajj. Iqraan is when hajj
and umrah are performed simultaneously. For those choosing tamatu'u and iqraan there is a fidyat of slaughtering a goat or
fasting 10 days, 3 in Makka and 7 after return to the home country. The Law specified dress for hajj, libaas al ihraam (MB 784 and MB 780). Sewn clothes, turbans, shirts, shoes, and dyed clothes are forbidden for
men (BG 596). There are no restrictions on the dress of women. Mawaqiit are sites
outside the holy sanctuary of Makka at which the approaching pilgrim makes the intention to perform hajj (BG 590-591). The
intention for umrat must be before reaching Makka. If one is already in Makka and desires to perform umrat, he has to go to
masjid al tan'iim and make the intention from there, Umrat al taniim (MB 869).
PILLARS (ARKAN AL HAJJ): The
pillars of hajj and umrah are: ihram; cicumbulation, tawaaf; trot between safa and marwa, sa'ay; shaving the hair, al halaq.
Hajj has the additional pillars of: standing in Arafat, stoning the jamaraat, sleeping at Muzdalifat, sleeping at Mina, and
the farewell circumbulation. Leaving out any pillar is expiated by slaughtering or fasting.
PROHIBITIONS OF MUHRIM:
When a person enters the state of ihram, he or she is now called a muhrim. The following are prohibited for a muhrim:
sewn garments, usingperfume, removing nails or hair, sexual intercourse or foreplay,
and hunting. Violation of any of these requires kaffarat which is slaughtering, feeding the poor, or fasting for three days.
Any marriage transaction while in a state of ihram is invalid.
ACTIONS AT THE HARAM
The pilgrim prays 2 rakaats before entering the haram. Talbiat is continued all the time except when making tawaf
or the trot between safa and marwa. Circumbulation of the kaaba is 7 times with 2 rakaats being offerred at the end. The trot
between safa and marwa is 7 times starting at safa.
MINA, MUZDALIFAT, AND ARAFAT:
On the morning of 8th of dhul al hijja the pilgrims move to Mina. They pray dhuhr, asr, maghrib, and
isha at Mina. They sleep at Mina and pray fajr. After fajr they move to Arafat where they spend the day. After maghrib they
start moving from Arafat to Muzdalifat where they spend the night. They wake up and pray fajr after which they pick pebbles
that they will throw at the jamaraat in Mina. They them move to Mina where they stone the jamaraat and slaughter. They then
cut a bit of hair from both men and women signifying partial release from ihram.
RETURN TO MAKKA
From Mina they then move to Makka where they perform tawaf al ifadhat and are then completely released from ihram.
They perform the farewell circumbulation, tawaaf al widai, before leaving Makka. A menstruating woman may leave Makka without
performing the farewell circumbulation.
VISIT OF MADINA
It is recommended to visit the Prophet's mosque in Madina.
PHYSICAL ACTS OF HAJJ and UMRAT
In a long hadith by Muslim(BG 607) the acts of hajj were listed as:
talbiyat, tawaaf, salat in maqaam Ibrahim,
trotting between safa and marwa, travel to muna, standing at Arafat, travel to and staying at Muzdalifat, stoning, slaughter,
and return to Makka. The formular for talbiyat is well known. The voice may or may not be raised in talbiyat (BG 619). Circumbulation
of the kaaba, tawaaf, is done 7 times. Trotting or jogging, raml,is
recommended (MB 813, 814, 811). Tawaaf al quduum (MB 817-818). Tawaaf al wida (MB 858 and MB 859). Conversation is allowed in tawaaf (MB 819). Standing in Arafat, wuquuf bi arafat (MB 831), for a whole day. Stoning the devil, ramy al
jimaar (MB 854, 855) involves ritual throwing of 7 pebbles at each of the three jamaraat. Kissing and touching the black
stone (MB 812, and MB 816) is recommended if possible. The trot between safa and marwa, sa'ay, is an obligation (MB 825)
Special rulings were made to ease the performance of hajj for women in their menstruation. Menstruating woman can
do everything except tawaaf (MB 827). Mesntruating woman can leave Makka after tawaaf al ifaadhat (MB 860). At the end of
hajj, women need not shave hair, clipping is sufficient (BG 634). Hormones can be used by women to delay their menstruation
in order to avoid interference with hajj rites.
There are several restrictions on the pilgrim while in the state of ihraam. These are lessened and finally lifted
towards the end of the pilgrimage. After throwing the pebbles, everything is permitted to the pilgrim except sex (BG 633).
Essential things like medical treatment are not restricted for example cupping was allowed in hajj (MB 892, BG 602)
PROHIBITIONS OF HAJJ
Shaving hair is forbidden unless there is a medical indication (p 315 2:196-199). Violence is prohibited. Because
of the sanctity of Makka, no fighting is allowed in the holy sanctuary. Hunting of wild game is forbidden (). Cutting thorns is forbidden (). Dangerous
animals can be killed in hajj (MB 889). The laws of homicide however apply (BG 604)
PILGRIMAGE IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES
Extreme heat could make the performance of outdoor rites difficult. War
& Insecurity in Hejaz or on the way could interfere with hajj. If a pilgrim can not be assured of safety of person and property, he
can discontinue the hajj wherever he is and return another year (p 315 2:196-199). Disease
epidemics in Hejaz or on the way are a reason for delaying hajj and taking other precautionary public health measures.
PILGRIMAGE OF THE SICK, hajj al mariidh
The physically disabled can circumbulate the kaaba riding on a vehicle or being carried by another person. The
weak may be hurt by the crowds at the Kaaba, Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifat and Jamaraat. The weak can leave Muzdalifat earlier
to avoid the crowds (BG 620-621). In case of a fracture, hajj is stopped and is repeated the next year (BG 647).
Patients with diabetes need to take extra precautions. Care should
be taken by diabetics when drinking not to take drinks that have a lot of sugar that will disturb diabetic control. The patient
should work closely with the physician. Control of diabetes should be achieved and stabilized at least 6 months before travelling
for hajj. Forward planning is necessary to make sure that the same type of dietary regime will be available during hajj so
that there are no sudden dietary changes that can spin diabetes out of control. Care of the feet is very important because
of the high possibility of injury to the feet while wearing only sandals. This includes care of the nails that must be trimmed.
The feet must be kept feet moist because dryness could lead to cracking that does not heal easily in a diabetic. Care is taken
while walking not to have feet trampled on and injured by other pilgrims.
For patients of hypertension, blood pressure control and stabilization
must be achieved at least 3 months before departure. Use of anti-diuretics must anticipate a hotter climate in Saudi
Arabia with more fluid losses by perspiration. For patients with gout, dietary guidelines
must be followed closely and attention must be given to proper hydration.