Lecture for Year 3 medical students on June 16 & June 30, 2001 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.



Merits of wudhu, fawaid/fadhl of wudu: Wudu had physical, psychological, and social or emotional benefits as explained above in the discussion of taharat.


Procedures of wudhu, kaifiyat al wudhu: Wudhu is washing or wiping with a wet hand the exposed parts of the body once (MB 126: Bukhari-E Vol1 H159) or twice (MB 127: Bukhari-E Vol1 H160) or thrice (MB128: Bukhari-E Vol1 H161). The obligatory parts involved are: the face, the hand s and forearms, the head and the feet (p. 752 5:6). There are additional non-obligatory acts that are recommended during wudhu. Water is run down the elbow (BG 45). Istinshaar is blowing of the nose to remove pollutants (MB 130). Madhmadhat is rinsing the mouth with water (BG36: Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Nisai, Ibn Majah). Istinshaaq is sniffing water into the nose (BG36: Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Nisai, Ibn Majah). Madhmamdhat and istinshaaq are done with separate scoops of water (BG47: Abudaud), this will prevent cross transfer of micro-organisms between the nostrils and the oral cavity. The external meastus of each ear is wiped with wet fingures (BG39: Baihaqi, Tirmidhi). It is recommended to wipe the whole head with a wet hand, mash kulla al ra-as (MB143: Bukhari-E vol1 H185) but any part of it is adequate. The head can be wiped once or three times (BG30: Bukhari & Muslim, BG31: Abudaud, Nisai, and Tirmidhi).  For a person wearing a turban it suffices to wipe on the turban (BG43: Muslim). It is allowed to wipe on the socks, mash ala al khuffain/mash ala al jiirat (MB153: Bukhari-E Vol1 H201; MB154: Bukhari-E Vol1 H203; MB155: Bukhari-E Vol1 H204; MB156: Bukhari-E Vol1 H205; and BG43: Muslim), instead of washing the feet provided the socks were worn in a state of wudhu (BG53: Bukhari & Muslim). The socks are wiped on the top and not the bottom (BG55: Abudaud). The socks can be worn for three nights and three days for a traveler and 24 hours for a non-traveler. They are not removed except in cases of ritual impurity, janabat (BG56: Nisai, Tirmidhi, Ibn Khuzaimah; BG57: Muslim; BG60: Darqutni, Ibn Khuzaimah). A patient wipes on socks or bandages over wounds in wudhu.  The inter-digital space between fingures and toes is wiped clean (BG36: Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Nisai, Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah). It is allowed for a person to pour water for another one in wudhu (MB141: Bukhari-E Vol1 H182). All acts of wudhu start is with the right hand, tayammun (MB133, BG41: Bukhari & Muslim; BG42: Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Nisai, Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah). It is sunna not to converse during wudhu. Wudhu is completed with a supplication, dua (BG52: Muslim, Tirmidhi). It recommended to offer two rak’at of sunnat at the end of wudhu.


Acts that nullify wudu, nawaqidhu al wudu: It is recommended to stay in a state of wudhu even in inter-slat times and during sleep (MB184). The following materials or acts will abrogate wudhu: urine, bawl; feces, ghait,  flatus, and riih al dubr,  when there is a sound and an odor (MB138, BG66: Muslim; BG76: Bazzar); ejaculate, mani; urethral discharge,madhi (BG64: Bukhari & Muslim), prostatic discharge, wadi; menstruation, haidh, deep sleep (BG75: Ahmad, Tabarani);  epistaxis (BG69: Ibn Majah), vomiting (BG69: Ibn Majah), eating camel meat (BG70: Muslim), touching the external genitals, mass al farj (BG68: Ahmad, Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Nisai, Ibn Majah). Sleep that is more than light sleep nullifies wudhu.


Acts that do not nullify wudu:  The following do not nullify wudhu: medical treatment involving bleeding like cupping, hijaam (BG74: Darqutni); touching a woman, mass al mar’a, with no sexual desire or intentions; bleeding from a fresh wound; intermenstrual bleeding (BG63: Bukhari & Muslim), dozing (BG62: Abudaud & Darqutni),  and kissing (BG65: Ahmad). 


Repeating wudhu: Wudhu is not repeated in cases of doubt, la yatawadhau min al shakk (MB112: Bukhari-E Vol1 H139). It is repeated when either feces, urine or flatus are passed (MB138: Bukhari-E Vol1 H176; MB139: Bukhari-E Vol1 H179; MB140: Bukhari-E Vol1 H180). It is also repeated on waking up from sleep (MB161: Bukhari-E Vol1 H211; MB162: Bukhari-E Vol1 H212; MB163: Bukhari-E Vol1 H213).


Acts prohibited when in a state of impurity: A person who has no wudhu can not touch the Qur'an (BG72: Muwatta, Nisai, Ibn Habaan). The name of Allah can be mentioned even if one has no wudhu (BG73: Muslim). It is recommended to have wudhu when reciting Qur'an or reading any book with Qur'anic verses in it because prostration of recitation, sujuud al tilawat, may be necessary. It is recommended to have wudhu while in the mosque but it is not prohibited to enter the mosque without wudhu..


Wudhu of children, wudhu al sibyaan: (MB488: Bukhari-E Vol1 H816; MB489: Bukhari-E Vol1 H817; MB490: Bukhari-E Vol1 H822).



Obligatory bath: Bath is obligatory in the following situations: coitus involving vaginal penetration even without ejaculation (p 751 4:43, 5:6, MB202; BG95: Bukhari & Muslim); male and female sexual emissions without coitus such as in a wet dream (BG94: Muslim; BG96: Bukhari & Muslim; BG97: Bukhari & Muslim); end of menstruation; end of post-natal bleeding since no prayer is allowed in post-natal bleeding until purity (BG128: Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ahmad); after washing a dead body (BG98: Abudaud & Ibn Khuzaimah); and conversion to Islam (BG99: Abdurazaaq). It is obligatory to take at least one bath in a week, wujuub al ghusl marratan fi al usbuui (MB502: Bukhari-E Vol2 H21) preferably on Friday (BG100: Bukhari, Muslim, Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Nisai, Ibn Majah, Ahmad; BG101: Abudaud, Tirmidhi, Nisai, Ibn Majah, Ahmad). A pilgrim must bathe before assuming the state of ihraam.


Etiquette of bathing: Hair should be separated during washing, tahliil al sha'ar inda al ghusl (MB185: Bukhari-E vol1 H248). The bather should hide from being seen by people, al tasattur min al naas (MB199: Bukhari-E Vol1 H278). Plaited hair need not be undone, it suffices to pour water over it (BG 105). Bathing in stagnant water is forbidden. No bathing is needed in intermenstrual dysfunctional bleeding; prayer can be performed after wudhu ().




Use of the tooth-pick is encouraged (MB487). It is recommended before salat but the prophet did not want to make it compulsory for fear of burdening the ummat.


DRY ABLUTION, tayammum

It is one of the special favours of Allah to the ummat that the earth is a cleanser (BG109: Muslim, Ahmad). In the absence of water, tayammum is carried out for both wudhu (4:43, 5:6, BG112: Bazzaar). Tayammum is carried for both travelers and non-travelers (MB225). Tayammum is carried out when there is little water that must be saved for drinking. Tayammum is also carried out in extreme cold and disease conditions that would be aggravated by use of water. Tayammum is for example carried out when there is a wound (BG114: Darqutni, Bazzaar, Ibn Khuzaimah, Haakim, BG116: Abudaud). In such cases the patient can wipe over the bandage (BG115: Ibn Majah). Tayammum is wiping the face, hands, and forearms after lightly touching soil with dry hands (4:43, 5:6). There is no need to repeat a prayer performed after tayammum if water is subsequently found before the end of the time of salat.



The purpose of clothes is to cover nakedness (p. 1038 7:26-27, 16:8), protect the body from the elements of weather, and to enhance appearance. Good dress is recommended (BG421: Baihaqi). Clean clothes are required (p 1037 74:4). Salat will not be valid if there is any impurity, najasat, in the clothes. The color of clothes preferred does not matter (MB248). Tight clothes that reveal the shape of the body are offensive, makruh, for men and prohibited, haram, for women. Perfume can be worn. Nakedeness in salat is offensive, karahiyat al ta'arriy fi al salat (MB 239: Bukhari-E Vol1 H360). The prohibition of nakedness is maintained even if one is praying alone in a closed room because the angels and the jinn are watching. Silk is forbidden for men (BG415: Abudaud; BG416: Bukhari;  BG417: Bukhari & Muslim) except for medical indications (BG418: Bukhari & Muslim). Ornamentation is part of dress (p.  1038 16:14, 35:12). Gold and silver are allowed for women and not men (BG420: Ahmad, Nisai, Tirmidhi). It is permitted to pray while wearing sandals, al salat fi al ni'aal  (MB254: Bukhari-E Vol1 H383, BG170: Abudaud). It is also permitted to pray in socks, khuffayn (MB255: Bkhari-E Vol1 H384). Wearing of shoes in salat is allowed but this practice is frowned upon when praying in the mosque.



Obligation: Establishment of salaat is the main supporting pillar of Islam, al salaat, ‘imaad al ddiin. Salat is a distinguishing characteristic of believers, al farq bainana wa baina ghayrina al salaat 2:3, 2:177, 2:277, 4:162, 5:55, 7:170, 8:3, 9:18, 13:22, 14:37, 14:40, 21:73, 22:35, 22:41, 24:37, 27:3, 31:4, 35:18, 42:38). It has far-reaching positive impacts on the behavior of the worshipper (p. 710-711 23:1-2, 29:45, 31:4-5, 70:19-35, 74:42-47, 87:14-15). Salaat is ordained for all believers (p 712 2:45, 2:153, 4:103, 6:72, 11:114, 14:31, 17:78, 20:14, 20:132, 22:77-78, 24:56, 29:45, 30:31, 31:17, 73:20, 98:5, 108:2). Believers observe salaat assidously (p. 713 2:238, 6:92, 23:9, 70:34, 107:4-5). Neglecting salaat is a cause of severe punishment (p. 712-713 19:59, 74:41-43, 75:31-32). Children should be told to pray at the age of 7 years, the age of discrimination, sinn al tamyiiz. They are punished for not praying at the age of 10. Adult obligaton to pray is at puberty or age 15 whichever is earlier. Sanity, ‘aql, and presence of mind are conditions for obligations. It is offensive to be excessive in ibadat, karahiyat al tashaddud fi al ibadat (MB609: Bukhari-E Vol2 H25).


Exemptions: Women in menstruation, haidh, or post-natal bleeding, nifaas, are exempted from salat and do not have to make up the missed ones (MB216: Bukhari-E Vol1 H318). They can however attend the 2 salat of eid, shuhuud al eidayn, but do not have to carry out the physical acts of prayer.


REGULATIONS & ETIQUETTE OF SALAT, ahkam & adab al salat

Conditions of validity of salat, shuruut al salat: Five conditions must be fulfilled for validity of salaat: (a) Purification of the body from excrement of stool and urine,  taharat min al hadath al kabiir & saghiir. (b) Purity of the garment, taharat al thawb (c) Purity of the place, taharat al makan (d) Covering nakedness, satr al awrat and (e) Facing the direction of the kaaba, istiqbal al qiblat


Invalidators of salat, mubtilaat al salat: Extraneous action: It is forbidden to engage in any other actions while praying. Some acts can be permitted provided they are necessary and the movements involved are not excessive. It is permitted to pray while carrying a baby (MB323: Bukhari-E Vol1 H495, BG178: Bukhari & Muslim). A dangerous animal like a snake can be killed during salat (BG179: Abudaud, Nisai, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah). Extraneous speech: Talking in salat is forbidden, maniu al kalaal fi al salaat (MB624: Bukhari-E Vol1 H290; BG172: Muslim; BG173: Muslim & Bukhari). No return of greetings is allowed when in salat (MB629: Bukhari-E Vol2 H308). If the imaam makes a mistake, men can draw his attention by tasbiih and women by clapping (BG174: Bukhari & Muslim). Eating: No food or drink can be consumed during prayer. It is recommended to rinse the mouth thoroughly before starting prayer to prevent eating any food remnants during salaat.


The call to prayer, adhaan. Adhan was mentioned in the Qur’an (5:58, 62:9). It has a lot of merit, fadhl al adhan (MB372). Adhan and iqamat are obligatory for congregational prayers but sunnat for individual prayers. Adhan and iqamat are required for a second congregation held in the same place for latecomers. Iqamat and not adhan is required for a congregation of women. Wudhu is obligatory for adhaan (BG156: Tirmidhi). The muaddhin must face the qiblat. For all salats except fajr adhan can be pronounced only after the time for that salat has entered. For fajr adhan can be pronounced befofe the time of fajr to give people time to wake up from sleep. The words of adhan are the same as those of iqamat with the exception of ‘qad qaamat al salat’ which is repeated twice in iqamat and is not pronounced in adhan. The words of adhan are repeated twice, al adhaan mathna (MB371: Bukhari-E Vol1 H579) but those of iqamat are pronounced only once. The voice is raised in adhan, rafiu al saut fi al adhaan (MB373: Bukhari-E Vol1 H583). The listeners must respond to the adhan, al radd ala al muaddhin (MB375: Bukhari-E Vol1 H585; MB376: Bukhari-E Vol1 H586). The followers have to repeat after the muaddhin except 'hayya ala al salaat' and 'hayya ala al falaah' to which the response is 'la hawla wa la quwattan illa bi Allah' (BG153: Bukhari & Muslim). The response to adhan is required even in menstruation or ritual impurity due to janaba. During prayer or copulation the response is delayed until the end of those actions. A precribed  supplication, dua, is recited at the end of the adhan, dua inda al nidaa (MB377: Bukhari-E Vol1 H588; BG159: Abudaud, Nisai, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah). The recommended formula is: ‘allahuma rabba hadhihi al da’awat al taamat wa aati sayyidina Muhammad al wasiilat wa al fadhiilat wa irfa’uhu maqaaman mahmuudan allati wa’adatahu innaka la takhlifu al mi’aad (MD377). It is permissible to pray non-obligatory prayer between adhaan and iqamat, nafilat bayna al adhaan wa al iqamat (MB382: Bukhari-E Vol1 H600). It is prohibited to pray any nafilat after iqamat (MB388; MB382: Bukhari-E Vol1 H600). After iqamat the followers do not rise up until they see the imaam (MB387). Emergencies can be attended to after iqamat (MB385, 398). If the prayer is called and the meal is ready, it is recommended to start with the meal (MB403: Bukhari-E Vol1 H641; BG188: Bukhari & Muslim). Salat should be delayed in case of urgent physiological needs for urination and defecation (BG193: Muslim).. When the call is made, the worshippers should come to salat with calmness, sakiinat (MB398: Bukhari-E Vol1 H608). Running and rushing too much are discouraged. When late, the worshippers prays what they find of the prayer and make up what they missed (BG335: Bukhari & Muslim). When camping out in the open or if a hospital public address system is used, people can pray where they are on hearing adhan and iqamat (MB385).


The qiblat: The direction of the kaaba, qiblat, must be faced wherever the worshipper is (p. 712 2:115, 2:142-144, 2:149-150, MB257, MB260: Bukhari Vol1 H392). It suffices to face the general direction of the kaaba (BG165: Tirmidhi). It is not necessarily to follow the accurate compass point. Facing the qiblat is not obligatory for nafilat when on a moving vehicle (MB267, BG166: Bukhari & Muslim). It is forbidden to pray facing graves (BG169: Muslim).


The mosque: Mosques should be built and furnished in a simple way. Excessive decoration of mosques is forbidden (BG206: Ahmad, Abudaud, Nisai, Ibn Majah; BG207: Abudaud). Mosques should be kept clean (MB288: Bukhari-E Vol1 H448). Spitting in the mosque is offensive (MB266: Bukhari-E Vol1 H407; BG205: Bukhari & Muslim). The mosque is a place of prayer. It is also a community center in which educational and community activities can be carried out. The following activities can be carried out: sitting in the mosque, i ‘itikaf (2:187, MB297: Bukhari-E Vol1 H461), lying down to rest in the mosque (MB298: Bukhari-E Vol1 H464), and medical care in the mosque (MB291: Bukhari-E Vol1 H452; BG201: Ahmad, Abudaud). The following activities cannot be carried out in the mosque: execution of punishments, huduud (BG201: Ahmad, Abudaud) and business transactions (BG200: Nisai, Tirmidhi). Prayer is permitted in the market mosque (MB299: Bukhari-E Vol1 H466). Salat can be offered outside the mosque: The term masjid does not necessary mean a built structure. All the earth was made a mosque for Muslims with the exception of the bath, hamaam, and the cemetery, qabr (BG167: Tirmidhi). Obligatory prayers are best performed in the mosque (MB270). Nafilat prayers are best performed at home (BG322: Bukhari & Muslim). It is important to perform nafilat at home so that the home does not become a grave-yardSalat can be undertaken in open spaces. A barrier, sutrat, must be placed infront to prevent passers-by interfering with the worship (MB312, 313; BG182: Hakim; BG185: Ahmad, Ibn Majah). The barrier should be at a reasonable distance (MB314: Bukhari-E Vol1 H475). The sutra can be a person, a tree, an animal, or any other object (MB318, 319, 322). It is a sin to pass infront of a person praying (MB320, MB321:Bukhari-E Vol1 H489; BG180: Bukhari & Muslim). All other causes of distraction should be removed from infront of the person praying (BG192: Bukhari). When praying outside, the worshipper should not look at the sky (BG193: Muslim). The Law is flexible about salat in a hospital environment. It permits salat in bed, al salat ala al firaash (MB251: Bukhari-E Vol1 H379; MB252) as well as salat facing a bed (MB319: Bukhari-E Vol1 H486). It is permitted to pray behind a sleeping person (MB322: Bukhari-E Vol1 H491). It is offensive to pray in the following places: the cemetery (MB275, 276), the bath-house (  ), middle of the road, rubbish dump, the church, or a slaughter-house. It is forbidden to pray facing a tomb. Prostration is allowed on wood or a mat (MB250).  


Times of salat: Salat is held from morning into the night (p. 712 17:78). Salat times are set in such a way that there is continuous communicatioin with Allah (MB331) in the different time zones of the globe. The times of obligatory salat are a fixed interval (4:103, MB325, BG129: Muslim). There is high merit to pray salat in its time interval (MB325: Bukhari Vol1 H500; MB329: Bukhari-E Vol1: H505; MB393). It is even higher merit to pray at the start of the time interval (BG140: Bukhari & Muslim). Sitting in the mosque to wait for salat is an assurance to pray at the start of the time interval (MB396). When on a journey,  two adjacent salaats can be combined (MB336: Bukhari-E Vol1 H518) either in the time of the first one, jamu taqdiim, or the time of the second one, jamu taakhiir. Salat al dhuhr can be delayed in extreme heat (BG133: Bukhari & Muslim). Salat al isha can be delayed until later in the night (MB351: Bukhari-E Vol1 H545; BG130: Bukhari & Muslim; MB353; BG132: Muslim). Sleep before salat al isha is offensive (BG130: Bukhari & Muslim). Salat al isha could be delayed so that it is the last activity of the day. It should be followed immediately by sleep. It is offensive to engage in conversation after salat al isha (BG130: Bukhari & Muslim). The prophet used to pray salat al fajr when it was still dark (BG130: Bukhari & Muslim).


It is prohibited to pray at three time periods that sun-worshippers use to pray. Salat is prohibited after salat al fajr until sunrise (MB357:Bukhari-E Vol1 H555; MB358: Bukhari-E Vol1 H557; MB359: Bukhari-E Vol1 H557; MB360: Bukhari-E Vol1 H558, BG136: Bukhari & Muslim). Salat is also prohibited just before sunset (MB358, MB359, MB361: Bukhari-E Vol1 H561; MB362: Bukhari-E Vol1 H564; BG136: Bukhari & Muslim). In practice this means that no salat is offered after salat al asr (MB #358, 359, 360, and 361) and after salat al fajr until sunrise (MB #357). Salat is forbidden at midday until the sun crosses the meridian (BG136: Bukhari & Muslim). These rules are relaxed for salat al qadhat (MB362, 363), sunnat for a specific purpose, sunnat al tahajjud, sunnat al wudhu, and for salat al janazat. There is no time restrictions on salat in the haram of Makka. A forgotten prayer is offered when remembered (MB362, MB363, MB366: Bukhari-E Vol1 H371). Missed prayers can be prayed in congregation, salat al jamaat ba'ada dhahaab al waqt (MB365: Bukhari-E Vol1 H570).


Salat is such an important communication with Allah that it requires complete concentration. Salat should not be offerred by a hungry person when food is presented (MB hadith # 403). Salat should also be delayed if the physical conditions will not allow undivided attention and concentration for example conditions of extreme heat, extreme cold, or hunger is the presence of food. Salat al dhuhr is delayed on hot days (MB #332, 333).


Salat al jamaat (62:9): Congregational prayer is communally obligatory, fardh kifayat, for resident males in order to establish the practice of salat in public. It is sunnat for women and travelers. Salat al jamaat is more pure (BG336: Abudaud, Nisai). The smallest jamaat is 2 persons. Salat al jamaat is 27 times better than individual prayer (MB390, MB391, MB392, MB395, MB397, BG314: Bukhari & Muslim). Salat al jamaat is so important that all should make the effort to attend including the sick (MB400: Bukhari-E Vol1 H400) and the blind (BG317: Muslim). Excuses for not attending salat al jamaat include: illness, physical difficulties, and domestic responsibilities. The sick are excused from congregational salat for the duration of their illness; they have to perform it as soon as they are better (MB399). The call of adhan must be loud enough so that everybody can hear and come (MB373). A person already in the mosque should join those praying salat al jamaat and repeat a salat that he prayed already on his own; the repetition is counted for him as nafilat (BG319: Ahmad, Abudaud, Nisai, Tirmidhi). Regular attendance of congregational prayer is a sign of faith. The two most difficult congregation prayers for the hypocrites are salat al fajr and salat al isha (BG316: Bukhari & Muslim). Salat in congregation requires a leader, imaam, for cordination. The most-learned person should be given preference (MB 406).  Additional criteria in order of importance are: memorization of the Qur'an, the older in age, good moral reputation muru'at, cleanliness of person and clothes, and a good voice. Usually the owner of the home, the regular imaam of the mosque, and sultan have precedence in leading salat. It is offensive for a person to lead others who he knows dislike him. The best reciter of the Qur'an has priority in selection of the imaam (BG327: Muslim). Handicaps such as blindness do not disqualify a person from being imaam (BG338: Ahmad, Abudaud). A woman can be imaam of other women (BG337: Abudaud). Once selected, the Imaam must be followed closely (MB409: Bukhari Vol1 H655; BG320: Abudaud; BG340: Tirmidhi). It is a sin to make any step ahead of the imaam (MB 412: : Bukhari-E Vol1 H660).  Lagging behind the imaam is excusable only for short durations. The followers must stand behind the imaam but if there are only 2 the follower stands to the right of the imaam (MB 415). The rows must be straightened (MB 421) with the forward ones being filled first.  The rows of men are first followed by boys then the women. If a woman is leading women she should stand in the middle of the row.). The imaam must consider the weak in the congregation (BG154:Ahmad, Abudaud, Nisai, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah). The aim is a short but perfect salat (MB419: Bukhari-E Vol1 H674). Salat is shortened if a baby is crying (MB420: Bukhari-E Vol1 H675). The Imaam should shorten the qiyaam (MB417: Bukhari-E Vol1 H670; MB418: Bukhari-E Vol1 H673; MB418); this will relieve those with dependent edema and postural hypotension. The imaam should not prolong the salat by reading long chapters of the Qur'an (BG323: Bukhari & Muslim; BG325: Bukhari & Muslim). The imaam can prolong the Qur'anic recitation if  he knows that all the followers are people who do not mind or can manage a lengthy salat. If the imaam prolongs the salat, the follower with a need is allowed to leave (MB416: Bukhari-E H669). If the imaam forgets what comes next in a recitation of the Qur'an, the followers remind him by saying it. If the imaam forgets an action, men can draw his attention by saying  ' subhana al laah'  and women by clapping hands. If the imaam omits a pillar of salat the followers can cease following him. If however the imaam omits a sunnat, the followers can perform it on their own provided it does not lead to a considerable lag behind the imaam. The congregation must stand closely in rows (BG329: Abudaud, Nisai). The most forward rows are the best for men (BG 330) while the most rear rows are best for women (BG330: Muslim). It is forbidden to pray alone behind a line. One person should be pulled from the line to make a new line at the back (BG334: Ahmad, Abudaud, Tirmidhi). If the imaam has to leave the salat for an emergency like urinary urgency, he can choose a successor from the followers who leads the salat to its completion. A wall could separate the imaam from the followers (MB 423). The imaam sits facing the congregation after taslim (MB 481, 482). It is permissible for the imaam to lead followers praying a different salat for example supererogatory & obligatory prayers and vice versa. The imaam may pray qasar while the followers are completing the prayer, the converse is not valid. The imaam may pray salat al dhuhr while the follower is praying salat al asr. The imaam may pray a make-up prayer while the follower is praying a current prayer. 


Physical acts of salat: The procedure of salat, sifat al salat, was described in hadiths of the prophet and his companions (BG210: Bukhari, Muslim, Abudaud, Nisai, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ahmad; BG211: Bukhari; BG215: Muslim). The physical acts of salat must be performed porperly in order to get the spiritual involvement. Spirituality can not exist in a state of anarchy. Islam being a complete civilization emphasizes perfection, excellence and order. Disorderly salat is not conducive to spiritual elevation. Salat has pillars, arkaan al salat, conditions for validity, shurut al salat, and actions that nullify it, mubtilaat al salat. There are 17 pillars of salat are: 1. Intention, niyyat; 2. Takbirat al ihraam; 3. Standing up, qiyaam; 4. Recitation of surat al fatihat; 5. Bowing, rukuu: 6. Being momentarily stationary, tama'aninat, after bowing. 7. Standing straight   'itidaal: after bowing (MB 461). 8. Tamaininat: being stationary after raising from the bowing. 9. Prostration, sujuud: 10. Being stationary in prostration, tama'aninat. 11. Sitting between the two prostrations, juluus bayna al sajdatayn. 12. Being stationary in the sitting posiiton, tama'aninat. 13. Reciting the last tashahhud. 14. Sitting during the last tashahhud. 15. Prayer for the prophet, salat ala al nabi. 16. The first salaam, al tasliim al awaal: signifies the formal end of the prayer (MB 476, 477). The second taslim is sunnat. The minimum taslim is: assalam alaykum. The more complete one is: assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. 17. Carrying out the above acts in order, tartiib. The following is the sequence of the pillars. The intention, niyyat, is impliict. Its pronouncement is sunnat and not a condition for validity of salat. Salat starts with takbirat al ihraam. The hands are raised to the level of shoulders when reciting takbirat al ihraam (MB425: Bukhari-E Vol1 H702; BG216: Bukhari & Muslim). The right hand is put over the left hand (MB426: Bukhari-E Vol1 H707). The position of the hands on the chest or abdominal walls is variable (MB428). A child can be carried in he hands or on the shoulders suring prayer (MB323). Takbir is repeated every time there is a change of position (BG323: Bukhari & Muslim). The nest physical act is bowing, ruku’u (MB451), rising from bowing (MB452), prostration, sujuud (MB462), and rising from sujuud (MB468). In standing, qiyaam, men stand on both feet with their legs separated while women stand with their legs together. The worshipper looks at the imaam (MB431: Bukhari-E Vol1 H713). It is prohibited to look at the sky (MB432: Bukhari-E Vol1 H717) or to allow distraction of the eyes (MB433: Bukhari Vol1 H718). Supplication to start the salat, dua iftitaah al salat (BG212: Muslim; BG213: Bukhari & Muslim) takes various forms some long and some short. The most popular form is: allau akbar kabiiran wa al hamdu li laahi kathiiran was subhaana al laah bukratan wa asiilan wajjahutu wajhiya li al lladhi fatara al samawaati wa al ardha haniifan musliman wa ma ana min al mushrikiin. Inna salaati wa nuski wa mahyaaya wa  mamaati li laahi la shariika lahu wa bidhalika umiirtu wa ana min al muslimiin’. Recitation: Recitation of surat al fatihat follows dua iftitaah al salat. No salat is valid without this recitation (BG218: Bukhari & Muslim; MB434).  The recitation may or may not include basmalah at the start of surat al fatihat (BG219: Bukhari & Muslim; BG221: Darqutni) and ta'amiin at the end (BG222: Darqutni, Hakim). Surat al fatihat is followed by one other surat in the first 2 rakaats and is recited without an additional surat in the third and fourth rakaats (MB437; MB447: BG224: Bukhari & Muslim). Recitation is loud in salat al maghrib (MB440), salat al fajr (MB444), sslat al isha, salat al jumu’at, sslat al tarawiih, salat al kusuuf, salat al istisqaau, and salat al eid. Recitation is loud for missed day prayers offered at night and is soft for missed night prayers oferred during the day. The follower must recite surat al fatiha for himself and not rely only on the recitation of the imaam. Both the imaam and the follower repeat the formula ‘amiin’ at the end of the recutation of surat al fatihat (MB448, MB449). Prostration of Qur'anic recitation, sujuud al tilawat (MB569: Bukhari-E Vol2 H173), preceded by takbiir is undertaken  at specified verses of the Qur'an, ayaat al sujuud (BG270: Muslim; BG271: Bukhari; BG272: Bukhari; BG273: Bukhari & Muslim;  BG276: Abudaud). Qunuut is recommended in the last rakaat of salat al fajr (BG241: Bukhari & Muslim; BG 244: Ahmad, Abudaud, Nisai, Tirmidhi, Ib Majah). Bowing: The worshipper should bow as much as is necessary to be able to put hands on the knees (MB 453). Bowing is at the waist and is performed with calmness it being necessary to stay momentarily stationary, tama'aniinat fi al rukuu (MB 461). Hands are put on the knees during bowing (MB 453) with fingures spread out or joined closely together (BG 237). The formula repeated 3,5,7,or 9 times during bowing is ‘subhana rabbiy al ‘adhiim’ It is required to ensure straightening the back after bowing, istiwau al dhahar fi al rukuu (MB 454). Bowing is followed by standing erect, i ‘itidaal, (MB461). The head is raised to the position before the start of bowing while repeating the formula ‘sami’a al llaahu li man hamidahu rabbana laka al hamdu mil’a al samawaati wa mi’a al ardh wa mil’a ma shi’ita min shay’I ba’adahu’. Prostration: Prostration is on 17 bones: the forehead, the two hands, the knees, and the 2 feet (MB 464, BG 234). The forearm should not be stretched out on the ground during sujuud as dogs do. The ground must bear the weight of the head during sujuud. The rear of he trunk must be higher than the front. The uncovered forehead must touch the ground. It is not obligatory for the nose to touch the ground. Spreading out arms, iftiraash fi al sujuud (MB 460, BG 235) for men and not women. The palm is put firmly on the ground while the elbow is raised (BG 236). Sitting down between two prostrations, al mukth bayna al sajdatayn (MB 465) is required.. During sujuud the following formula is repeated: 'subhana rabbi al a'ala three times. In sujuud the men separate the knee and feet but the women keep them together. Men can separate their arms away from the trunk during prostration but this is discouraged for women (MB#250). Testament, tashahhud: The tashahud at the end of the first 2 rak 'ats is brief and is not obligatory; the one at the end of the salat is longer and is the one that is obligatory. (MB 472). There is a supplication, dua, after the last tashahhud (MB 473, 475).  The minimum for tashahhud is: al tahiyaat li laahi al salaam alayka ayyuha al nabiy wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu salaam alayna wa ala ibaad laahi al salihiin. As'hadu al la ilaha illa llah wa shhadu anna muhammamdan rasulullahi. The complete tashahhud is: 'al tahiyaat al mubarakaat al salawaat al tayibaat li laahi. Al salaam alaika ayyuha al nabiy wa rahmat al llaahi wa barakatuhu. Al salaam alayna wa ala ibaad al laahi al salihiiin. Ash'had an la ilaaha illa al laahi wa ash'had anna Muhammadan rasuuul al laahi'. The prophet described how to sit down in tashahhud (MB 469). Recitation of tashahhud, has several variants. The index fingure is used to point or it can be moved (BG 246). There is a supplication, dua al tashahhud, and a prayer for the prophet, salaal ala al nabi. Prayer for the prophet, salat ala al nabi: The brief form is Allahumma saklli ala muhammad.. The more extensive one is: allahumma sali ala muhammad wa ala aali muhammad kama sallayita ala ibrahima wa ala aali ibrahima wa barik ala muhammad wa ala aali muhammad kama baarakta ala ibrahuma wa ala aali ibrahima fi al alamiin innaka hamidun majiid. Prostrations of forgetting: When an obligatory act is forgotten, there is prostration for forgetting, sujuud al sahaw (MB 631, BG 262, BG 263). These are 2 prostrations before tasliim for each act of forgetting (BG 269). If the worshipper doubts how many rakaats have been prayed, an attempt must be made to remove the doubt and prostration of forgetting at the end is necessary (BG 265). Followers have to what the forgetting imaam is doing (BG 268) even if they realize he is forgetting and is making a mistake. Closure: Formal closure of salat is with tasliim (MB 476, 477). The salat is formally closed after the first tasliim. The second tasliim is sunnat. The minimum taslim is: assalam alaykum. The more complete one is: assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. The following can be done after the formal closure of the salat: suppolication, dua, (BG 255), remembrance of Allah, dhikr (BG 256), and recitation of ayat al kursi (BG 258). Dua before taslim is recommended as followed: allahumma ighfir li ma qadamtu wa ma akkhartu wa ma asrartu wa ma a'alantu wa ma asraftu wa anta 'a'alamu bihi minni anta al muaqaddimu wa anta al muakkhiru la ilaaha illa anta.  Dhikr after taslim is recommended but is not obligatory (MB 478, 479, 480). The dhikr is silent unless the imaam wants to teach people in which case he will repeat the dhikr aloud. The recommended dhikr consists of the following: (1)  ayat al kursi verse 2:225, (2) surat al ikhlaas S.112,  (3) surat al falaq S.113, (4) surat al naas S.114, (5) astaghfirullah  (6) alahumma anta al salaam wa mijka al salaalu wa ilaika ya'udu al salam ta 'alayita wa tabarakta ya dha al jalal wa al ikraam (7) allhuma la mania lima a'atayita, wa la mu'tiya lima mana'ata wa la raddan lima qadhayta (8) subhana laah x 33 times (9) alhamdulillahi x 33 times (10) allahu akbar x 33 times (11) la ilaaha illa laahu wahdahu la sharika lahu al mulk wa lahu al hamdu wa huwa ala kulli shay'I qadiir.  The following qunuut supplication is repeated in salat al fajr after rising from bowing in the second rak'at: allahuma ihdini fiman hadayta wa afini fiman afayta wa tawallani fiman tawallayta wa barik li fiman a'atayata, wa qini sharra ma qadhayta, fa innakia taqdhi qa la yuqdha alayka wa innahu ;la yadhillu man aalayta wa la ya'izzu man adayta tabarakta rabbana wa ta'alayta falaka al hamdu ala ma qadahyta astaghfiruka wa atuubu ilayka.


Prostrations of forgetting: Mistakes can occur in prayer; they may be mistakes of omission or mistakes of commission. They should be corrected immediately and a prostration of forgetfulness, sajdat al sahaw, is oferred at the end (MB #262, 631).  Two prostrations are made just before tasliim. The imaam must be followed even if he makes a mistake and the prostration of forgetfulness is offered at the end. The follower may prostrate for his personal mistakes after the taslim of the imaam. When a salat is forgotten, it should be offered in total whenever it is remembered (MB #366). Sujuud al sahaw is not necessary in such cases. Adhan (MB#364) and salat al jamaat are allowed in make-up prayers (MB # 365). The missed prayers should be made up in the order in which they were missed and there is no need for sujuud al sahaw. Sujuud al tilawat is prostration on reciting any verse of the Qur'an with the word sujuud or any of its conjugates. This prostration does not require facing the qiblat. It is sunnat for the reader, the active listener, mustam'u, and the passive listener, samiu,. The prostration starts with takbir and ends with taslim unless it is in salat in which case the taslim is not necessary. The rules for sujuud al shukr are the same as those for sujuud al tilawat.


Conditions of salat, shuruut al salat: The following conditions for validity of salat, shurut al salat, nullify the salat if left out: (a) taharat, (b) covering the awrat, (c) facing the qiblat, (d) avoiding extraneous speech & movements (e) avoiding eating (e) ascertaining the entry of salat time before starting to pray (f) knowing the obligation of prayer and (g) and knowing the method of prayer.


Invalidators of salat, mubtilaat al salat: Salat is invalidated by the following: (a) extraneous speech, (b) extraneous movements, and (c) eating. Speech of any kind is forbidden in salat (MB 624, 625). Greetings are not returned during prayer but can be returned at the end (MB 629).


Offensives of salat, makruhaat al salat: Among the offensives, makruhat al salat, is to pray when holding onto urine or stool and when food or drink are presented and the person praying is hungry or thirsty. When food is served it is preferable to start with food and pray later to ensure complete concentration during prayer (MB 403). These situations are physiological stresses that can impair concentration in salat.


Sunnat  of salat: The following sunnats of salat if left out require sujuud al sahaw: .(a) the first tashahhud (b) sitting in the first tashahhud (c) prayer for blessings on the prophet in the first tashahhud (d) prayer for blessings on the relatives of the Prophet in the first tashahhud (e) reciting al qunuut (f) standing up in qunuut.


Etiquette of salat, adab al salat: Salat should be short and perfect (MB hadith #419). There is no point in praying so many rakaats of nafilat hurriedly to achieve quantity without thinking about quality. Salat should have calmness, sakiinat (MB hadith # 864). Salat should be approached with dignity (MB hadith # 1249).



Al salawaat al khams, the five daily prayers: The 5 canonical prayers are obligatory. Salat al fajr is 2 raka’at offered at dawn. Salat al dhuhr is 4 raka’at offerred at mid-day. Salat al asr is 4 raka’at offered at mid-afternoon. Salat al magrib is 3 raka’at offered at sunset. Salat al isha is offered at night. These five prayers are obligatory for all Muslims. All the other prayers described below are either obligatory for some people only or are superegatory. Salat al jumu'at: Friday is a special day of prayer for Muslims but unlike Judaism and Christianity, Islam leaves it as a day of work. When the call to prayer is made, Muslims hasted to the prayer. When the prayer is concluded, Muslims resume their business (p. 712 62:9-10).


Salat al jumuat is personally obligatory, fardh ‘ain, for all Muslims (MB 492) with the exceptions of servants, women, children, the sick, and the traveler (BG 376). The sick are also exempted for the duration of their disability (MB506). Any 40 residents are obliged to hold salat al jumaat in their location (BG 372). Salat al jumu’at can be delayed on a very hot day (MB506). Use of perfume on Friday is recommended (MB 493). The best  clothes should be worn (MB497). Bathing is required (MB 502, MB504).  Hair can be oiled (MB495, MB496). The teeth are cleaned with miswak (MB498, MB499).  Worshippers should come to the mosque early and with tranquility. It is recommended to make dhikr on the way to the mosque. Two calls are made (MB509). The first one is a warning and the second one is just before the start of the khutbat (MB 509). Atentiver listening to the khutbat is an integral part of the salat (MB 520). It is forbidden to speak during the khutbat including admonishing another person to be quiet. A late-comer should pray 2 short rakaats of salat al nafilat before sitting down to listem to the khutbat. The imaam delivering the khutbat must do so standing up (BG 359) and leaning on a weapon such as a sword or a stick (BG 378). The imaam's voice is raised so all can hear (BG 360). It is preferable that the khutbat be short (BG 361). Two khutbahs atre delivered with a brief pause between the two. The 5 pillars of the khutbah are: praising Alah, enjoining taqwa, recitation of the Qur’an (BG 362, BG 374), dua in the second khutbah, and ….. The recommended acts of khutbah, sunan al khutbah, are: syanding on a pulpit during delivery, using the Arabic language, salutation at the start, entry of the Imaam after the second adhan, the imaam holding a weapon, and facing the congregation. The Khutbah can be in any laguage but as mentioned above it is sunnat to deliver it in Arabic.  Salat al jumaat is 2 rakaats prayed after the khutbat with loud recitation of the Qur'an. A late-comer who prays only one rakaat with the imaam can make up the missed rakaat (BG 358). A late-cpmer should not displace anybody who is already sitting (MB508) Salat al jumu'at can be delayed on a hot day (MB 506).



Salat al lay / salat al tahajjud / salat al qiyaam: Waking up at night and praying is a sign of faith and is encouraged (p. 713: 17:78-79, 25:64, 51:17-18, 52:49, 73:1-6, 73:20, 76:26). The prophet used to wake up to pray at night and encouraged others to so so (MB590, MB593). There is no limit to the number of rakaats that can be prayed at night but each two must be concluded with tashahhud and tasliim, salaat al layl mathna mathna. Salat al tarawiih is 20 raka’ats on each night preceding a fasting day of Ramadhan. It is recommended to delay qiyam al layl to be able to pray in the second half of the night (MB607). Witr is the last prayer of the night (MB539, MB540, MB541, MB542). It can be offerred at any time of the night between salat al isha and salat al fajr (MB 541, BG 296). The rakaats in witrs are odd in numbers: one, three, five, seven. nine etc (BG 293). The minimum of witr is 1 raka’at and the maximum is 11 raka’ats. Salat al dhuha is prayed in mid-morning and is 2, 8, or 12 raka’ats. Salat al tatawu'u consists of prayers before, qabliyat, and after, ba'adiyat, the 5 prescribed prayers (BG 281, BG 282, BG 283, abd BG 284). Salat al tatawu'u is 2 rakaats at a time (BG 291), 2 before salat al fajr, 2 before salat al dhuhr, 4 after salat al dhuhr, 4 before salat al asr, 2 after salat al maghrib, and 2 after salat al isha. Salat al eid is a community gathering to which all should come including menstruating women who attend but do not actually pray (BG 389). It is a sunat mu’akkadat and its time is from sunrise. Food is taken before salat eid al fitr (MB 528, BG 387) but not before salat eid al adh'ha (BG 388). It is sunnat to use one route to the congregation place and return by a different route (BG 397). It is also sunnat to go to salat al eid on foot (BG 399). It is recommended to wash, ghusl, wear the best clothes, use perfume, and to go the prayer place early. The salat al eid congregation is best held in an open space but if it rains it is held in the mosque (BG 400). Salat al eid consists of 2 rakaat followed by 2 khutbats (BG 390, BG 394). The imaam should arrive just before the start of the salat. Nine takbirs are said before the first khutbah and 7 before the second.  Adhan and iqamat are not required (BG 392). The call to prayer is ‘al salat jami’at’ repeated twice. There are 7 takbirs in the first rakaat and 5 in the second (BG 395). No salat nafilat is allowed before or after salat al eid at the place of the congregation (BG 391). It is recommended to repeat takbir on all days of eid. The short form is ‘allahu akbar allahu akbar la ilaaha illa allah allaahu akbar allahu akbar wa li al laahi al hamd’.  The longer form is ‘al hamdu li al llaahi kathiiran wa subhaana al llaahi bukratan wa asiilan, la ilaaha illa al llaah wa la na’abudu illa iyaahu mukhlisiin lahu al ddiin wa law kariha al kaafiruun. La ilaaha illa al llaah wahadahu sadaqa wa’adahu wa nasara ‘abdahu wa a’azza jundahu wa hazama al ahzaab wahdahu la ilaaha illa al llaah wa al llaahu akbar’. Drought prayer, salat al istisqaa (MB 547) it is 2 rak'ats like those of eid followed by 2 khutbahs. It is prayed in times of prolonged drought to ask Allah for rain. It is preferable that the imaam convenes the people and that as many as possible in the community join in the prayer. Prayer of the Solar eclipse, salat al kusuf (MB 561) has no adhan or iqamat. It consists of 2 rak'ats but each rak'at has 2 fatiha recitations and 2 bowings. The prayer is continued until the eclipse is over (BG 401). Two sermons like those of the Friday prayer are recommended at the end of the salat. Salat al khussuf: This is prayer offered during the eclipse of the moon. Salat al haajat: Salat al khawf (MB 524, 525) This is prayer during a legally-sanctioned military engagement. Some fighters pray, others guard them, and others engage the enemy (p. 711 4:102, BG 379, BG 380, BG 381). If the danger is extreme prayer can be performed while riding or standing (P. 711 2:238-239). One rakaat is sufficient when in danger (BG 383, BG 384). If the fighting is very intense, prayer can be by nodding instead of bowing and prostration. Salat during windstorms: BG 404. Salat during earthquakes: BG 405. Prayer of Consultation, salat al istikharat,is prayed when there is a matter that requires decision and the right solution is not known. After praying 2 rak'ats a special prayer is said: allahumma inni astakhiruka bi 'ilmika wa astaqdiruka bi qudratika wa as 'aluka min fadhlika al adhiim fa innka taqdiru wa la aqdiru wa ta'alamu wa la a'alamu wa anta allaamu al ghuyuub. Allahumma in kunta ta'alamu anna hadha al amr khair li fo diini wa ma'ashi wa aqibat amri fa aqdiruhu li wa yassiruhu li thumma barik li fiihi. Wa in kunta ta'alamu anna hadha al amr sharru li fi diini wa ma'ashi wa aqibat amri fa asrifuhu anni wa asrifni anhu wa aqdir li al,khair haith kaana thumma radhini bihi'. (umdat p. 161). Salat of greeting the mosque, sunnat tahiyyat al masjid (MB #279) is offered as 2 rak'ata on entering the mosque. However the best greetings for the Makka mosque is circumbulation of the kaaba. Salat of the journey, salat al safar, is offered on starting a journey and is 2 rak'ats. Salat on return from a journey is 2 rak'at. Salat of I ‘itikaaf: Salat sunnat al I'iktikaaf 2 rak'ats. Salat of ablution: Sunnat al wudhu 2 rak'ats at conclusion of the wudhu.


Salat al janazat:  Salat al janazat is performed to pray for the dead as fardh kifayat fulfilled by 1 male and if no males are available it is fulfilled by females.. It is preceded by several measures including taking care of the terminal patient, preparing the corpse, and resolving legal obligations. The dying should be taught the testament 'la ilaaha illa al llaahu' (BG 428). Surat Yaasiin is read to them (BG 429) in addition to supplications, dua (BG 430). On death, the body is covered (BG 431). Kissing the body is allowed (BG 432). Debts of the deceased must be settled before proceeding further with rituals of burial (BG 433). The body is washed; men preferably should wash men and women wash women; a man could wash a woman (BG 443, 444). Care must be taken not to damage the body such as breaking bones (BG 468). The body is shrouded in simple white garments (BG 439) with no extravagance (BG 442). The corpse is placed on its right side with the face towards qiblat. The imaam stands at the head of the male corpse and at the lower end of the female corpse. One salat al janazat can be offered for several corpses simultneously. Salat al janazat consists of 2 takbirs without any bowing or prostration. Surat al fatihat is recited (BG 456) in addition to supplications (BG 457, BG 458, BG 459). There are 4 takbirs. Surat al fatiha is recited after the first takbir. Salat ‘ala al nabi is recited at the second takbir. Dua is recited for the deceased at the third takbir (‘umdat 232). The following formula is recited at the fourth takbir ‘allahuma la tahrimuna ajrahu wa la taftinna ba’adahu’. This is followed by tasliim. Salat al janazat is held for all the dead even those executed for infringement of huduud (BG 445). No salat al janazat is held for those who died of suicide (BG 446). Salat al janazat is held just before burial. It could be held after burial (BG 447) and for a deceased buried elsewhere, salat al ghaib (BG 449). Salat al janazat can not be held in the cemetry.



The following are considered difficult physical circumstances: extreme heat, extreme cold, rain & flooding, earthquake, and a long journey. The following are considered difficult psychological conditions: fear, khawf, urgent need for relief of stool or urine, hunger when food is presented, overwhelming sleep, forgetting, and mind wandering. Salat can be delayed for weather conditions that can change for example delaying salat al dhuhr on a hot day (MB 332). The traveller can shorten the prayer, qasr al salat (p. 713 4:101, MB 575 and MB 576). This applies to the 4-rakaat prayers: salat al dhuhr, salat al asr, and salat al isha. Salat al maghrib and salat al fajr are prayed in full (BG 341, 342, 344, 345, 346). Qasr is carried out during the journey and only for 3 days after arriving at the final destination. On arrival at the destination with the intention of travelling again, qasar can be continued for 18 days and no more. Joining, jam'u, can be done in case of rain preventing return for another salat, for a nursing woman, for a woman with a chronic vaginal discharge who is not sure she will be in a clean state for the next salat, fear of urinal contamination for those with urinary incontinence, fear for life, fear for property, and fear for honor. In the cases mentioned above, the joining of salat can be only apparent and not real, jam'u suuri.  The first salat is offered at the end of its time while the next one is offered at the start of its period. The traveler is permitted to join 2 adjacent prayers, jamu al salat fi al safar (MB 586, BG 347, 348). Dhuhr and asr can be offered together at the time of dhuhr, jam'u taqdiim, or at the time of asr, jam'u ta'akhir. Maghrib and isha can be offered at the time of maghrib or the time of isha (MB 581, 586). There is merit in shortening the prayer by the traveler (BG 350). It is offensive for the traveler to refuse making use of the exemptions given (BG 343). The shortest journey for which salat is shortened is 81 km or 48 miles (MB 580, BG 349). What matters is the distance and not the time required to cover that distance. If there is no way at all for holding salat, it can be made up at a suitable time later

SALAT OF THE SICK, salat al maridh

The patient may have the following physical handicaps: inability to face the qiblat, inability to stand, inability to sit, inability to read, inability to bow, and inability to prostrate.The following are solution alternatives: make-up salat, qadha al salat; resting for moments in a sitting position to regain energy for the next movement; praying in a sitting position (MB 588-589); praying while sitting down and cross-legged (BG 353); praying while lying down on one side of the body (MB 587, BG 351); resting on a staff in salat; Praying by gestering  with one part of the body eg fingure (BG 260, 261, 352); and finally praying in the mind with no motions. The sick stop qiyam al layl (MB 592) and try to fulfil the 5 prescribed prayers. Salat can be interrupted for an urgent need (MB 627) that could be medical or otherwise.

Soldiers on the battle field can pray abridged prayers and physical movements are changed. Women are excused from salat during the period of menstruation because of the associated physiological stress (MB 216).


Go to Part II

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. June 2001