Lecture for 3rd year medical students on 6th January 2001 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr
Purpose Of Speech
The Good Word, Kalimat Tayyibat, And The Bad Word, Kalimat Khabiithat
Etiquette Of Speaking
Rulings About Speaking
Day And Night
Purpose Of Sleep
Etiquette Of Sleeping, Adab Al Nawm
Rulings About Sleep
Types Of Walking
Purposes Of Walking
Etiquette Of Walking
Etiquette Of The Road, Adab Al Tariiq
Foot Racing, Musabaqat
Sitting And Ibadat, Majlis An ‘Ibadat
Sitting And Learning, Majlis Al ‘Ilm
Etiquette Of The Assembly, Adab Al Majlis
The Unique Human Upright Posture
Standing And Ibadat
Etiquette Of Standing, Adab Al Qiyaam
PURPOSE OF SPEECH
Human speech serves several purposes: communication, education, social interaction, and worship. Humans also speak
when making supplication, dua, to Allah the almighty. Human speech has a big impact being likened to sorcery, inna min
al bayaan lasihrun (KS 462)
THE GOOD WORD, kalimat tayyibat, and the BAD WORD, kalimat khabiithat
The prophet taught that human speech should consist only of positive and good messages. The good word is charity,
al kalimat al tayyibat sadaqat (KS 462). Allah does not like obscene talk, fahsh and tafahhush (KS 462).
The prophet taught avoiding bad and immoral talk. He described in detail the type of talk to be avoided (KS 462).
ETIQUETTE OF SPEAKING
In order to make social interaction positive and pleasant, the prophet taught the etiquette of speaking. The older
ones speak before the younger ones (KS 462). It is preferable to speak little or to keep silent (KS 461). There is great merit
in speaking little (KS 461). Being humble and speaking less is a sign of iman (KS 462). It is recommended to mention Allah
during conversation, dhikr al llaah athnaa al kalaam (KS 462).
RULINGS ABOUT SPEAKING
Fear of people should not deter from saying the truth, rahbat al naas la yamuna'u qawl al haqq (KS 461).
Muslims are ordained to tell the truth, al amr bi al sidq (KS 453). Telling a lie is one of the major sins, al kadhib
min al kabair (KS 453). Lying has serious consequences, ‘aaqibat al kadhib (KS452). There are however three
instances when permission is given to tell a lie, rukhsat bi al kadhib fi thalaath (KS 453). Lying is allowed for purposes
of reconciling quarrelling persons. It is also allowed when an enemy is looking for a Muslim to kill him. It is also allowed
in domestic life to avoid hurting feelings for example a husband may say he enjoyed a meal when he did not in order to protect
the feelings of the wife who cooked. If a person is forced to lie, Allah can forgive. Exaggeration in conversation is forbidden
and is a form of lying. Mujamalat is speaking with people in a pleasant way to make them comfortable even if they are people
one detests. Mujamalat should however not degenerate to the level of deceptive acting. Keeping silent to avoid self-incrimination
is preferable to public declaration of sins. If Allah covers a sinner from people’s eyes, he should recourse to repentance.
Open broadcasting of sins only serves to encourage others to commit the same sins. Secrets are a trust and should never be
revealed in conversations. In some legal situations like the marriage of a virgin, silence is construed to mean consent.
DAY AND NIGHT
The day is light, nahar mubsirat (p 542 10:67, ; p 542 27:86) and was made for humans to seek their sustenance, nahar
ma'aashan (p 543 78:11). The night is a period of rest, al layl sakanan (p 538 6:96, 10:67, 37:86; p 542 40:61).
It is a garment, al layl libaasan (p. 538 25:47, p. 539 78:10). The night is a period Allah set aside for rest, sleeping,
and ibadat. Night prayer is not obligatory, salat al layl laisat waajibat (KS 471) but is highly recommended. There
is great merit in prayer at night, fadhl salat al llayl (KS 469). There is great merit in recitation of the Qur'an
at night, fadhl tilawat al Qur'an fi al llayl (KS 469).
PURPOSE OF SLEEP
Sleep is a sign of Allah (p. 1273 30:23). Sleep is rest (p. 1273 25:47, 78:9). During sleep there are several metabolic
and intellectual activities that benefit humans.
ETIQUETTE OF SLEEPING, adab al nawm
It is recommended to make wudhu before going to bed. It is sunnat to say a supplication, dua, before sleeping.
It is sunna to sleep facing the qibla and to sleep on the right hand side, al naum ala al janb al ayman (KS
552).Sleeping on the face is prohibited, la yarqudu ala al wajih (KS
552). A special supplication is said when alarmed in sleep. Yawning and sneezing may occur during sleep or on waking up from
sleep. The prophet taught the proper etiquette for yawning and sneezing, adab al ‘atas wa al tashmiit. The prophet
also taught the etiquette of waking up. A special supplication is said on waking up for tahajjud (KS 469) and on waking up
in the morning (). The hands should be washed first before putting them
into any vessel. The face should also be washed to take away ocular, nasal, and oral secretions.
RULINGS ABOUT SLEEP
Sleeping on the side nullifies wudhu, al naum ala al janb yanqudhu al wudhu (KS 551). A person in ritual
impurity makes wudhu before sleeping, yatawadhau al mujnib idha araada al naum (KS 551). Sleeping before salat nullifies
wudhu, al naum qabla al salat yanqudhu al wudhu (KS 551). Sleep could occur in salat, al salat wa al nawm (KS
551 Bukhari K4 B53; Nisai K1 B116; Nisai K4 B29). Sleeping in salat is from shaitan, al naum fi al salat min al shaitan
(KS 551: Ibn Majah K5 B42, Muwatta K1 H26). Night prayer should be abandoned if sleep is overwhelming (KS 471)
TYPES OF WALKING
Bipedal walking of humans has enabled humans build a sophisticated civilization. The Qur’an has mentioned
walking in various instances: walking on earth, mashyu ‘ala al ardh (p 1118 25:63), walking in the earth, mashyu
fi al ardh (p 1118 , 17:95, 31:18), walking in the markets, mashyu
fi al aswaaq(p 1118 25:7, 25:20), and walking in homes, mashyu fi al
masaakin ( p. 1118 20:128, 32:26). Allah made the roads (p557 ; p 558
, ; P 558 43:10) to enable
humans work in comfort. He also provided landmarks for them to know the way and to know the direction of the road, ihtidaau
ila al sabiil (p 557 4:98). The road is not always easy and Allah in His mercy made hajj obligatory only for those who
have the ability to travel, istitaa’at al sabiil (p. 557 3:97).
PURPOSES OF WALKING
Walking must have a purpose, al qasd fi al mashy (p 1118 31:19). Humans unlike animals should not walk and
wander aimlessly. Walking can be for any of the following worthy purposes: jihad (p 1118 28:25), work and employment, ibadat,
seeking knowledge, physical exercise, and social visits. Walking for purposes of ibadat is the most worthy purpose. The reward
is increased according to the number of steps taken to the masjid.
ETIQUETTE OF WALKING
The prophet taught by example that the best manner is walking is taking quick and big steps, harwalat. The
Qur’an has described several etiquettes of walking: firm steps, thubuut al aqdaam (p 280 2:250, 3:147, , 47:7), walking on feet (p 1112 7:195, 24:45), walking straight, mashyu sawiy
(p 1118 67:22), and walking with etiquette, mashy wa al adab (p 1118 25:63, 31:19). The etiquette of walking is more
emphasized for a woman: walking with shyness, mashyu bi hayaa (p. 1118 28:25) and not making audible attractive sound
patterns with the feet (p 280 ). Allah in His mercy also recognized handicapping
conditions that make walking difficult, mashyu bi haraj (p 1118 17:37, 31:18)
ETIQUETTE OF THE ROAD, adab al tariiq
When walking or sitting by a public highway, the following rights of the road, haqq al tariiq, must be observed:
lowering the gaze, ghadh al basar; avoiding causing any annoyance, kaff al adha, and returning greetings, radd
al salaam (KS 342: Bukhari K79 B2)
FOOT RACING, musabaqat
Foot racing is allowed when wearing leather socks, khuff, or bare footed (KS 281: Ahmad 2:256, 358, 385,
424, 505; Ahmad 3:190)
A Muslim must be very careful whom he chooses for a sitting companion. The compassion may be good, jaliis al
khayr, or bad, jaliis al suu. The bad companion may be a source of bad peer influence. It is recommended to seek
the company of the righteous, al qu’uud ma’a al saalihiin, and to avoid the company of the transgressors,
al qu’ud ma’a al dhaalimiin (P 956 4:140, 6:68).
Sitting on graves, al juluus ala al qubuur, is forbidden. Visits to the cemetery should be brief.
Sitting down serves the purposes of resting and relaxation. While standing muscle tension maintains an upright
posture. On sitting down, the muscles can relax. Sitting is also psychologically relaxing. The prophet recommended sitting
down in a calamity, al juluus ‘inda al musiibat (KS 153: Abudaud K20 B21)
SITTING AND IBADAT, majlis al ibadat
Sitting is a form of ibadat. A believer remembers Allah sitting down, dhukr al laah qu’udan (p 956
3:191, 4:103, ). Sitting in the mosque waiting for salat has the reward of
being in salat
SITTING AND LEARNING, majlis al ‘ilm
Sitting in a study circle to study Qur’an and other religious sciences has been part of Muslim tradition
for centuries. The study circles are usually held in the mosque.
ETIQUETTE OF THE ASSEMBLY, adab al majlis
The prophet taught the etiquette of sitting in an assembly. Priority of sitting is given to the first-comer. A
person cannot be forced to stand up and give his or her seat to a newcomer however is considered good manners and charity
to do so. If a person goes out of the assembly for a short interval he has the right to reclaim his or her seat. There are
special rights of sitting for the elderly, the learned, and the handicapped. Children should sit behind the adults. Women
have to sit separate from men and their manner of sitting should respect the shyness expected of a woman.
Standing is preparation for walking. Standing helps venous return due to the action of muscle pumping.
THE UNIQUE HUMAN UPRIGHT POSTURE
The human upright posture is a bounty from Allah. Humans are able to maintain stationary equilibrium and dynamic
equilibrium against forces of gravity and other forces like the wind or the push of other humans.
STANDING AND IBADAT
Standing is involved in several acts of ibadat. Night prayer is called qiyaam al llayl (p 970 3:113, 25:64,
39:9, 52:48-49, 73:1-4, 73:20) because of the prolonged standing involved. Humans stand in remembrance of Allah, qiyaam
li dhikr al laah (p 970 3:191, 4:103). There is standing in the 5 obligatory prayers, qiyaam al salat (p 969-970
4:102, 4:142, 5:6, 22:26, 26:21). During hajj there is standing at Arafat, wuquuf Arafat, and at Muzdalifat, wuquuf
muzdalifat. Care must be taken to make sure that prolonged standing in salat does not cause postural hypotension due to
venous pooling of blood in the lower extremity.
ETIQUETTE OF STANDING, adab al qiyaam
A Muslim can stand up to show respect to another person, qiyaam al ihtiraam. The respect to humans in extended
even to the funeral bier. It is recommended to stand up when a funeral procession passes by, qiyaam li al janazat.