Objectives of the study: (1) primary objective: assessing the impact of currently-used health
education methods on cancer (2) secondary objective: using the extensive data collected on cancer KAP to design school-based
cancer education modules that will involve teachers and students.
Methods: The study covered schools in 6 districts with a total study
population of 1875. The schools were divided into an intervention group
that had special cancer education programs (seminars, posters, brochures, and video) and a control non-intervention group.
Both groups completed a questionnaire at base-line and after 6 months. The questionnaire had 102 KAP items from current cancer
education materials: (a) socio-demographic characteristics (b) knowledge of cancer information sources, cancer sites, cancer
symptoms & signs, cancer detection methods, cancer treatment methods, cancer risk factors, cancer prevention methods,
and (c) opinions on and attitudes to cancer. The Data was analyzed as matched sets using the MacNemar chi-square and conditional
Results: At the baseline cross-sectional survey, more than 50% of the
respondents correctly knew 62 out of 102 items; knowledge being predicted by socio-demographic indicators: district of residence,
gender, ethnic group, religion, type of housing, and monthly income. There was significant change in 65 items at the repeat
survey; the changes in different items being predicted by being from an intervention school, attending a seminar, seeing a
poster, reading a brochure, and watching a video.
Conclusions and recommendations: The study (1) demonstrated the feasibility
and positive impact of a KAP intervention program in schools; (2) has shown that community resources and community leaders
have been under-utilized in cancer education programs; their role needs to be redefined and enhanced. The current cancer education
materials, methods, and media need extensive change in light of the findings of this study. Programs should be tailored to
specific niche populations based on district, gender, ethnicity, income, and district of residence; a centrally planned program
is less effective.